Only one-fifth Of the Earth’s original forests remain pristine and undisturbed. 60% of the world ‘s coral reefs, which contain up to one-fourth of all marine species, could be lost in the next 20-40 years (Burke, 1998). Between 10 and 20 percent of all species will be driven to extinction in the next 20 to 50 years (1994). Hundreds of thousands of sea turtles and marine mammals are entangled and drowned by irresponsible fishing practices every year. More than 20 percent of the world’s known 1 0,000 freshwater fish species have become extinct, been threatened, or endangered in recent decades (Harrison and Assistants, 1999).
Sixty percent of the world’s important fish stocks are threatened from overfeeding (Burke, 2004). Global warming is expected to increase the Earth’s temperature by ICC (5. 40 F) in the next 1 00 years, resulting in multiple adverse effects on the environment and human society, including widespread species loss, ecosystem damage, flooding of populated human settlements, and increased natural disasters. An estimated 40-80 million people have been forcibly evicted and displaced from their lands to make way for the construction of large dams, resulting in economic and social devastation for these people (Harrison and Assistants, 1999).
In the Philippines, natural disasters such as falsehoods, landslides, typhoons, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis are often experienced because the country astride in the active volcanic region known as the Pacific Ring of Fire. The Philippines also suffers major human-caused environmental degradation aggravated by a high population growth rater including loss of agricultural lands, deforestation, soil erosion, air and water pollution, improper disposal of solid and toxic wastes, loss of coral reefs, mismanagement and abuse of coastal resources, and overfeeding.
C Environmental issues in the Philippines”, 009) The unceasing deterioration of the environment appears to be a worldwide issue, which is why it needs global effort in order to alleviate the environmental crises that the world faces for decades. Statement of the Problem The environment continues to deteriorate as time pass by. A variety of environmental problems now affect the entire world. As globalization continues and the earth’s natural processes transform local problems into international issues, few societies are being left untouched by major environmental problems.
Mankind is one of the causes of the environmental issues such as pollution, global warming and greenhouse effect. Human activities have affected the earth’s air, land and waters. Sometimes, these effects have rebounded to hurt human beings, as well as others. The purpose of this study is to obtain material and data regarding the global status of the environment which can be used by interested parties in obtaining an objective sample of information from which to draw their respective opinions. The purpose of this study is to answer the following questions: 1.
What is the current state of the environment? 2. What are the methods of alleviating environmental crises? 3. What organizations are responsible for the environment in the Philippines? 4. What are the natural disasters and calamities associated with the trend of global warming? Scope and Limitation . The study focused on the current environmental status of the world today. This study described some methods on alleviating environmental issues. The study also enumerated some of the environmental crises that the world faces today.
However, the study was limited to a library research. No direct sources or interviews were conducted and no direct research data was obtained. Using library research provided the researchers a wide range of reference materials. Moreover, the library was accessible and contained primary and secondary sources. Significance of the Study Global warming is no longer a theoretical concept. While raising average global temperatures, climate change could also bring more snow, harder rain, or heat waves, meteorologists say.
There is emerging scientific consensus that human activity in particular through the emission of carbon dioxide has certainly contributed to drastic changes in our climate through global warming. This study will be a significant endeavor in developing methods of alleviating environmental issues. This study will also educate people to be aware of the current environmental status of the world. More importantly, his study will encourage people to take action on alleviating environmental issues for their own benefit. Definition of Terms Alleviate. To lessen something Apathetic.
Not taking any interest in anything, or not bothering to do anything Degradation. A decline in the quality Environment. The natural world, especially when it is regarded as being at risk from the harmful influences of human activities Erosion. The gradual wearing away of rock or soil by physical breakdown Globalization. A process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of communication, transportation, and trade Global warming. An increase in the world’s temperatures, believed to be caused in part by the greenhouse effect Greenhouse effect.
Warming of the Earth ‘s surface as a result of atmospheric pollution by gases. Pollution. The act of polluting something, especially the natural environment Sustainability. Exploiting natural resources without destroying the ecological balance of an area CHAPTER II Status of the Environment Severe environmental degradation threatens to undermine the productivity and economic growth. The problems facing the environment are vast and diverse. Destruction of the world’s rain forests, global warming, and the Appleton of the ozone layer are just some of the problems that will reach critical proportions in the coming decades.
Their rates will be directly affected by the size of the human population. Human population growth is often seen to be the root of all of the world’s environmental problems. If new technological advances are able to cut in half the environmental impact that each person had, as soon as the world’s population size doubled, it would have no beneficial effect (Change, 2004). In 1 970 Earth Day started on different colleges in the United States of America inspired by Senator Gaylord Nelson. People felt the environment was in real trouble.
Accidental spills from oil tankers had poured millions of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil polluted the water and harmed sea-life. Poisonous mercury, which was released by factories, was found in fish and wildlife in many states in the United States. Ohio banned fishing in polluted Lake Erie because of the toxicity. The destruction of rainforest’s and other habitats endangered thousands of animal and plant species around the globe (“How did the earth day start”, 2009). On the other hand, the primary forests of the Philippines are no longer as they were before.
What little primary forest does remain exists on the island of Palatal, the last sanctuary for the Palatal eagle. Between 1990 and 2005 the Philippines lost a third of its forest cover. While the current deforestation rate is around 2 percent per year, this represents a 20 percent drop from the rate of the asses. Widespread logging was responsible for much Of the historical forest loss in the Philippines. Additional threats to Philippine forests come from legal and illegal mining operations?which also cause pollution? agricultural fires, collection of fuel wood, and rural population expansion.
In recent years, deforestation has been increasingly blamed for soil erosion, river isolation, flooding, and drought; environmental awareness is now rising in the country. Activists are quick to criticize government decisions that adversely affect the country’s environment (Butler, 1994). Description of Different Methods of Alleviating Environmental Issues One of the processes the researchers intend to study is the information drive. It is the use of variant tools to promote the objectives of the campaign either by media or small organization meetings.
This is commonly used to give awareness and proposed solution against the current problem. This information drive could be utilized in the research to promote tree planting as one of its solution; planting trees could generate more wood and re-oxidize the atmosphere and the plains. It could also help prevent or lessen mudslide on forests and provincial lands. In the Philippines, there are two major organizations that are devoted to monitoring and protecting the environment.
First is the Department Of Environment and Natural Resources (EDEN), which is an executive department of the Philippine government responsible for governing and supervising the exploration, development, utilization, and conservation of the country’s natural resources. Second, is the Harrison Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources, which is a membership organization, dedicated to the conservation of Philippine biodiversity. It aims to build a constituency for environmental issues that will prioritize conservation actions on habitats and sites, based on solid, scientific, and socio-economic research.
The organization’s advocacy is to protect nature and preserve life. Every day, people use a variety of products in our households and work places to fulfill their basic needs. Most of these reduces and their packaging are wasted and dumped in bins, which end up in land fill sites. The three Or’s of sustainability are Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Recycling is the processes of collecting, processing, remunerating, and reusing materials instead of discarding them. This helps conserve raw materials and energy that manufacturers would otherwise use in producing new products.
Recycling also reduces the amount of material going into landfills. Recycling helps lessen the pollution that may result from waste disposal. Reducing the consumption and consequent waste of materials also adds to the conservation of resources. Recycling basically involves reusing materials. The world population is growing, not shrinking, and currently each human being adds significant waste to the planet over his or her lifetime. People will do what is right if they have the information before them and understand why it is the right thing to do.
Others might think that people will only do what is in their own self-interest. Different Environmental Issues The pattern of global change that is overtaking the world is perceived as “very disturbing. ” Human activities are placing a severe stress on the global ecosystem. One cause of environmental issue is pollution. Pollution happens when chemicals that are harmful to living things get into the environment. Among all the different kinds of pollution, but the researchers would discuss air pollution, water pollution and land pollution.
Oxygen from the air is essential for human bodies to live. Air is 99. 9 percent nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals. Air pollution includes smog, acid rain and “holes” in the ozone. Air pollution comes from factories and power plants that burn coal and oil. Smoke from these can combine with water in the air to make acid rain. Air pollution also comes from cars and other vehicles that burn gasoline.
Air pollution also needs to be considered inside our homes, offices, and schools. Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as smoking and cooking. Air pollution has been pinpointed as the major cause of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. According to a 2007 World Bank report, about 18 million Filipinos are exposed to air pollution, with corresponding health expenditures and lost income amounting to 7. 6 billion pesos a year. Comprising over 70 percent of the Earth’s surface, water is one of the most precious natural resource that exists on our planet.
Without the seemingly invaluable compound comprised of hydrogen and oxygen, life on Earth would be non-existent. It is essential for everything on our planet to grow and prosper. Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water. When it is unfit for Its intended use, water is considered polluted. In addition to various organisms dying off, drinking water has become greatly affected as s our ability to use water for recreational purposes. Water pollution comes from factories that dump poisonous chemicals into lakes and rivers.
It can also come from farms. Farmers put chemicals on the ground to help crops grow and to kill insects. These chemicals can be washed away by rain and into lakes and rivers. Oil tankers can pollute the ocean if the oil leaks out of them. There can be a huge oil spill if a tanker is subject to an accident and sinks at sea. Pathogens are another type of pollution that proves very harmful. They can cause many illnesses that range from typhoid and dysentery to minor expiratory and skin diseases. Pathogens include such organisms as bacteria, viruses, and protozoan.
These pollutants enter waterways through untreated sewage, storm drains, septic tanks, runoff from farms, and particularly boats that dump sewage. Though microscopic, these pollutants have a tremendous effect evidenced by their ability to cause sickness. Heat is also a cause of water pollution because increased temperatures result in the deaths of many aquatic organisms. These decreases in temperatures are caused when a discharge of cooling water by factories and power plants occurs. Raw sewage, airbag, and oil spills have begun to overwhelm the diluting capabilities of the oceans, and most coastal waters are now polluted.
Beaches around the world are closed regularly, often because of high amounts of bacteria from sewage disposal, and marine wildlife is beginning to suffer. Land pollution damages terrestrial organisms, reduce the uses of the land by man for agricultural, residential, recreational or other purposes or increase the risk of health hazards to man. It includes visible litter and waste along with the soil itself being polluted. The soil gets polluted by the chemicals in pesticides and riversides used for agricultural purposes along with waste matter being littered in urban areas such as roads, parks, and streets.
Global warming is, according to former Vice President AY Gore (1992), “A planetary emergency – a crisis that threatens the survival of our civilization and the habitat ability of the earth”. Normally, greenhouse gases exist to keep a warm “blanket” of heat trapped inside the atmosphere. Over the last few decades, there has been a dramatic rise in the emission of greenhouse gases thanks to human intervention by way of excessive consumption and combustion of natural asses, coal & oil, as well as factory exhaust, deforestation and population growth. With the rise of greenhouse gas levels consequently comes a rise in global temperature.
Those who take a stand that global warming is a global concern argue that global warming is the root cause of most recent natural catastrophes from devastating hurricanes to typhoons to earthquakes saying that as the state of the world becomes “unnatural,” natural disasters reflect this sudden change. However, not all scientists agree that global warming is a global crisis as perpetuated by the mass media. Others, such as John Christy, a professor and director of the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama state that it is not something to worry over.
Professor Charity’s claim is a product of his research and insight into the dynamics Of the global temperature trend. CHAPTER Ill Us m Mary Due to the curiosity of the researchers about the current environmental status of the world, they conducted a library research about the important factors contributing to the state of the ecosystem. The state of the environment provides ample data – some empirical while others inferred – hat can lead to a number of different objective or otherwise subjective arguments.
Population booms, deforestation, oil spills and natural disasters are among some of the main concerns of environmentalists all over the world. As part of the issue regarding environmental problems, solutions to these problems needed to be identified, assessed and tackled as part Of the research. Such solutions include conducting an “information drive” – a campaign for awareness and a call for participation – and implementing the Three Or’s (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle) on a day-to-day basis.
From the research, at least TV’0 groups in the Philippines have been identified as those who prioritize the monitoring and protection of the environment. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DEN R) represents the Philippine governments interests in maintaining a healthy, living ecosystem in the country. The Harrison Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources is an organization outside of the government that prioritize building a constituency for environmental issues that will prioritize conservation actions on habitats and sites.
Pollution – a supposedly-major cause of global warming – has been found to be widespread, encompassing almost every known ecosystem from the air to he land to the seas. Air pollution, of interesting note, is identified as the root cause of global warming. Global warming occurs when greenhouse gases that serve to keep a set temperature within the Earth by trapping heat increase in volume, and therefore release less heat outside of the atmosphere.
Greenhouse gases come naturally from the surface, but with the advent of chemical advances and technology, the emission levels have increased and are accelerating the trend of global temperature rise. Contributing to this trend is land and water pollution. Pollution in these areas severely affects the organisms that help lessen greenhouse gas emissions like terrestrial and aquatic plants. Conclusion Awareness and understanding of environmental issues provide the basis and foundation for commitment and meaningful action towards the development of the environment.
Environmental laws were implemented and scientists devise new ways to save the environment but no matter how advanced these technologies and how perfect the implementations of these environmental laws are, an independent effort to resolve these global problems is not enough. Global problems require a global effort. The research reveals that he environment is in a worse state compare to its state before, a venture filled with cooperation and dedication will allow a dramatic turn around. Starting in the Philippines by using the three Or’s (Reuse, Reduce and Recycle) pollutions can be greatly lessen on all dimensions (Land, Air and Water).
Specifically attending to the global warming the research proves that by lessening what people emit and release harmful materials that affect the atmosphere it can help the earth heal itself. Of all living organisms, humans alone have the ability and knowledge to modify not only their environment but the environment of all other organisms. Something must be done because the environment is deteriorating. The attitude of people must not be apathetic towards this issue. It takes a lot Of effort to change and sustain the environment.
It is the people who are responsible for worsening the environment that is why they should rise up and take action for their own good. The youth is a powerful vessel for change, that is why they are encourage to voluntary participate in programs that stresses the importance of action for sustaining the environment. It is not only the youth, but all people should make a change for a better world. Protecting the environment s an important aspect of people’s lives because there is only one Earth and it is in people’s hands to change the present situation for a better future.
Recommendation The researchers encourage everyone to help save and heal the environment in their own little way. Starting from planting trees to joining CEO-friendly groups that would increase people’s knowledge and devotion in saving the environment. This research would be a pioneer in the beginning of making a difference in saving the environment thus its vision is to provide the current generation and the generations to follow a much healthier and safer place to live in.