Environmental impact assessment is a formal process used to predict the environmental results, both negative and positive of a plan, policies, and programs, it propose measures to adjust impacts to acceptable levels or to investigate new technological solutions. Although an assessment may lead to difficult economic decisions and political and social concerns, environmental impact assessment protect the environment by providing the basis for effective and sustainable development.
Environmental impact assessment is a process of evaluating the environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, culture, and human health impacts, both beneficial and adverse It is described as a tool used to identify the environmental, social, and economic impacts of the project prior to decision-making. It aims to predict environmental impacts at an early stage in project planning and design, find ways and means to reduce adverse impacts, shape projects to suit the local environmental and presents the predictions and options to decision-makers.
By using EIA both environmental and economic benefits can be achieved, such as reduced cost and time of project implementation and design, avoided clean-up cost and impacts of laws and regulations. Environmental impact assessment commenced in the sass, as part of increasing environmental awareness. EIA involves evaluation intended to contribute to more objective decision making. In the United States, environmental impact assessment obtained formal status in 1969, with enactment of the national environmental policy act. Alas have been used increasingly around the world.
The number of environmental assessment filed every year has vastly overtaken the number of more rigorous environmental impact statements. An environmental impact assessment is a mini-IIS designed to provide sufficient information to allow the agency to decide whether the preparations of a full-blown environmental impact assessment statement is necessary The aim of environmental impact assessment is to protect the environment by ensuring that a local planning authority when deciding whether to grant leaning permission for a project, which is likely to have significant effects on the environment.
The regulations set out procedure for identifying those projects which should be subject to an environmental impact assessment, and for assessing, consulting and coming to a decision. EIA also aim to ensure that the public are given early and effective opportunities to participate in decision making. EAI aims to ensure the protection and conservation of the environment and natural resources including human health aspects against uncontrolled development.
Long term objective is to ensure a sustainable economic development that meets present needs without compromising future generation’s ability to meet their own needs and it also ensure that decision makers consider the environmental impacts when deciding whether or not to proceed with a project. The methods of EIA Industrial product -? product environment life cycle analysis is used for identifying and measuring the impact of industrial product on the environment. These Alas consider activities related to extraction of raw materials, production, use, disposal and ancillary equipment.