Human migration is movement of population related to the change of residence. This is a complex social process which serves an important function in society. There are different reasons for migration. One reason for the migration of the population is ecological. Environmental degradation is a serious deterioration of ecological conditions. Vast areas are virtually uninhabitable, so people are forced to leave these regions.
Migration of this type are called environmental migrants. There are two types for environmental influences on human migration. One of them is fast and another one is slow (Gray and Billboards, 2013). The fast one is a quick change of the environment such as natural disaster (e. G. Earthquake, tornado or flood). For example, considering the effects of hurricane “Strain”, which claimed the lives of more than a thousand in 2005, it should be noted that more than 800,000 people were left without electricity and telephone services, and one and a half million people have fled their homes.
Many left the city forever. This can also be man-made catastrophe, which does not cause long-term changes in the environment of serious ecological habitat. The slow one, in contrast, IS a specification of environment like land quality and long-term climate norms. The best example is the deterioration of the ecological situation in the Oral Sea region due to the thoughtless melioration policy in the region, carried out during the Soviet era.
Another indicator of land quality could be in connection with recent technological disasters cause long-term radiological, chemical or bacteriological contamination of areas. The most significant examples of this are accident on the fourth unit of the Coherently nuclear power plant and the tragedy in the Indian 1 city of Opal, which occurred two years before Coherently, when pesticide plant leaked about 40 tons of highly toxic gas – methyl assassinate.
More than 500 people died immediately from the direct effects of gas, about 6,000 people were serious chemical injury, including 2 thousand people died in the next few weeks. The number of deaths over the next 20 years varies according to various estimates, from 14 to 20 thousand people In addition, in cent years, the literature has become referred climatic migration related to the general warming of the planet. Such confirmation can be the fact that more than 75 thousand people in Western Europe were killed by high temperatures in 2003.
Despite the fact that ecological migration has deep historical roots, as a social phenomenon it relatively recently become a subject of study by representatives of various sciences, including lawyers, and thus insufficiently explored in the world. Therefore, there is still no sound public policy assistance to environmental migrants. This category of migrants in the international instruments mentioned in passing accepted notions of environmental migration is not developed in international law. Perhaps that is the reason why they are in no hurry to leave the environmentally disadvantaged areas.
At the new place they do not expect any security in housing or work. Jinn (2009) states that “the conditions of pastoralist’ household economies under the “ecological and environmental migration policy” was reflected by the simulation and the analysis so the structure of income and the expenditures of pastoralist after migration were clarified, and a case study simulation of “not emigrating” was carried out. About 50-60% of 37 households succeeded in changing the mode of production and improving their living conditions. On the other hand, about 40-50% of the households could not smoothly change the mode of production.
Actually, most of them did not receive sufficient subsidies, so their living conditions worsened, especially for households with sick or elderly people. ” The paper recommends that in order to reduce poverty and increase the poor people’s capacity to adapt or respond to climate change the overspent will need to: firstly, mainstream or integrate climate change adaptation with sustainable development policies; and secondly, improve the capacity of local authorities to effectively deliver services to their communities . There is a general consensus that migration may have an significant influence in climate change adaptation (Katharine, 2014).
Wettest al. (2012) state “that between 3-32% of the coastal zone of these islands could be lost from primary effects, and consequently 8-52 million people would become SSL refugees. Assuming that inundated urban and intensive agricultural areas will be relocated with an equal area of habitat loss in the hinterland, we project that secondary SSL effects can lead to an equal or even higher percent range loss than primary effects for at least 10-18% of the sample mammals in a moderate range loss scenario and for 22-46% in a maximum range loss scenario.
In addition, we found some species to be more vulnerable to secondary than primary effects. Finally, we found high spatial variation in vulnerability: species on islands in Oceania are more vulnerable to remarry SSL effects, whereas species on islands in 3 Indo-Malaysia, with potentially 7-48 million SSL refugees, are more vulnerable to secondary effects. In view of the environmental migration can be defined as the movement of people to change the place of residence or place of stay associated with the inability or unwillingness to stay in the zone of ecological disaster with a natural or man-made disaster, changing environmental, sanitary-epidemiological or climatic conditions and the impossibility of returning to the stabilization environmental or sanity rye-epidemiological taxation in the former place of residence or place of residence due to a threat to life or personal injury or unwillingness to return to their former place of residence owing to such fear.