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The main causes of marine pollution are shore based industries, off-shore drilling, wrecked oil tankers and transport activities. Also the waste discharged into the rivers that flows to the ocean is the main reason of marine pollution. Marine pollution has adversely affected the sea life. Major sources: Transport, oil tankers and industries. Preventions/control of Marine Pollution Following are some of the preventive measures of marine pollution: 1 Careful handling of oil and petroleum products. 2. Ban ocean dumping of sludge and hazardous dredged materials. 3. Dispose fully treated municipal and industrial wastes. 4. Regulate coastal development. 5.

Hygienic and aesthetic maintenance of recreational beaches. 6. Controlled use of pesticides and chemicals in agricultural activities in delta portions. 7. Separate sewage and storm water lines. 8. Ban on dumping of radioactive wastes. 6. Thermal pollution: It is an increase in the water temperature due to industrial operations (steel industries and power plants). Many industries are using water as a coolant. Due to which the temperature of the water rises. This hot water is then discharged into the environment causing a warming of surface water. This can result in a permanent increase in water temperature. It can also affect the aquatic system.

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Major sources: Steel Industries, Power plants and nuclear power plants Following are the means to reduce thermal pollution: 1 . Theoretically, when efficiency of any heat engine is equal to 1. 0 then it will convert 100% of heat energy to mechanical energy. So there will be no loss of heat to the environment. This is practically impossible. Rather, we should aim at maximizing the efficiency of heat engines (steam, ICC, nuclear etc) so that eat loss is minimum. 2. Reduce mechanical friction in any rotating parts. 3. Avoid consuming energy more than necessity. Burn less coal, oil or gas. 4. Promote use of more nuclear energy because it will not generate Carbon did oxide. 5.

One of the major cause of Global warming is increasing concentration of Carbon did oxide, leading to more green house effect. On the other hand, green plants have got the capacity to absorb Carbon did oxide. In the photo synthesis plants take water, sunlight and carbon did oxide to produce their food. So, plant as many trees as possible. Massive plantation s the only solution for reducing global carbon did oxide level. Indirect effect of plantation is, It will reduce soil temperature, cause more rains, some of the carbon did oxide shall be dissolved in rain and shall go to the sea – which will ultimately form carbonate rocks and will help in the flora and fauna of the marine life.

If we can follow these, certainly we shall be successful in reducing thermal pollution and will be able to prevent the glaciers from melting and rising of sea levels. Thermal can be prevented very easily. Most of the people who cause thermal pollution are big factories which use the water then pour t back in the ocean. To prevent this all they have to do is just cool the water before they put it back in the ocean. 7. Nuclear pollution: Pollution caused by the radioactive waste material due to nuclear explosion is known as nuclear pollution. It can give rise to diseases like skin cancer. Due to the increased numbers of nuclear plants the nuclear waste disposal has become a threat for the environment.

Major Sources: Natural: Cosmic rays Man made: Nuclear weapons testing How can radioactive pollution be prevented? The only option against nuclear hazards is to check and prevent radioactive elution by taking the following measures and precautions. 1. Safety measures should be enforced strictly; 2. Leakages from nuclear reactors, careless handling, transport and use of radioactive fuels, fission products and radioactive isotopes have to be totally stopped; 3. There should be regular monitoring and quantitative analysis through frequent sampling in the risk areas; 4. Waste disposal must be careful, efficient and effective; 5. Appropriate steps should be taken against occupational exposure; 6. Fatty measures should be strengthened against nuclear accidents; and 7. Reverting measures should be followed so that background radiation levels do not exceed the permissible limits. Prevention and control of pollution: Pollution control is an approach to eliminate the release of pollutants into the environment. It is regulated by various environmental agencies that establish limits for the discharge of pollutants into the air, water, and land. A wide variety of devices and systems have been developed to control air and water pollution and solid wastes.

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