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However, the environmental natural resources are fully use by man kind for the purpose Of daily activities, for example, the trees being cut to make paper or furniture. Besides that, activities such as open burning or disposable of solid waste will destroy and pollute the whole environment. Environmental pollution is contamination of air, water and land from man-made waste. It leads to depletion of the ozone layer, global warming and climate change. Environmental pollution can be divided into 4 main types which include, land pollution, water pollution, air pollution and sound pollution.

Those pollutions will affect our health, damage the living organism, and destroy the plane. While, environmental ethics is relate to the environment. Environmental ethics is the discipline that studies the moral relationship of human beings and also the value and moral status of the environment and its nonhuman contents. As a field of study, it assumes that humans have certain responsibilities to the natural world, and it seeks to help people and their leaders become aware of them and to act responsibly when they do things that impact the natural world. In this assignment, we will focus on the environmental pollution.

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We will start by explain and giving the meaning for ACH of the environmental pollution which include sound pollution, land pollution, water pollution and air pollution. Next, we will determine the causes and effect Of the pollutions. After that, We will identify the solutions to solve those problems. The objectives of doing this assignment are to give more information about our responsibilities to the natural world, to define about the environmental pollution, to give ideas on how to reduce pollution and to demonstrate a caring and responsible attitude. ) Sound Pollution Sound pollution can be known as noise pollution or environment noise. It can be defined as unwanted or displeasing sound by human activities or machines which disturb our daily routines by bringing harmful effects on our health or welfare. While, pollution is different from air pollution, water pollution and land pollution. As noise does not last long and remain in the environment. However, its immediate effects in terms of annoyance will disturb human life. Decibel (db) is the unit to measure the loudness of a certain sound.

For sounds with measurement more than 80 db, in a long term exposure, they will hurt our ears. This is considered as sound pollution. When the loudness exceeds 130 db, it is very dangerous as it can damage our eardrum. Table 1 shows the types of sound. Table 1 First of all, the most common source of sound pollution is our transportation system. As we can see, at the urban areas, mostly noise come from the vehicles on the streets which includes the motors and exhaust system of cars, buses, trucks, motorcycles and so on.

Secondly, air craft noise can lead to sound pollution. Mostly due to the problems of low flying military aircraft, helicopters and airplanes that constantly landing and taking off. Especially if is near to the residential area, it will be very disturbing and affect people’s daily lives. Besides that, noise from the railroads will contribute to sound pollution. These noises come from locomotive engines, horns and whistlers, switching and shunting operation in rail yards.

Furthermore, when there are any constructions of buildings, housing areas, highways and city streets, the noise mostly come from those construction’s equipments such as jackhammers, bulldozers, air compressors, loaders, pavement breakers and dump trucks. Thus, resulting sound pollution and brings negative effects. Another common source Of sound pollution is the industrial noise. People who live near the factories and noisy manufacturing places are always disturbed by the noises like motors, fans and compressors at the outside of building.

Meanwhile, noises from the inside of the factories can be transmitted through any open doors or windows and disturbing the residents. Then, noise in building also will causes sound pollution. For those buildings which are not well-designed, the internal building noise from boiler, plumbing, generators, air-conditioner and fans can be heard and is disturbing. Besides, amplified music, voices, footsteps, noisy activities are audible too if the walls and ceilings are improperly insulated. Eventually, noises may come from the consumer products.

Several household’s equipments such as the Vacuum_jar cleaner, washing machine and some kitchen appliances like blender can cause certain annoying noise. 12. 1) Human health effects: Sound pollution will contribute to a person’s physical and mental problems. For example, if we live in an environment with serious sound pollution, we may get annoyance, aggression, hypertension, high stress level, tinnitus and sleeping disturbances. According to psychological studies, stress is the main component causing various health problems such as high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and cardiovascular effects.

In addition, noise can damage our hearing, hurting our eardrums and we might suffer from temporary or permanent deafness. People who work at big cities where their offices are located near to the main roads are lack of concentration when performing their jobs. As the noise of the traffic outside of their office, and the horns of vehicles will divert their attention and attract them from their Current work. These people are more likely to feel fatigue and tired all the time because they need to spend more time to finish their works because they fail to focus on their works.

Besides that, during pregnancy, the pregnant women should always stay at a calm and relaxing atmosphere. But, sudden noise or prolonged exposure to displeasing sounds might cause miscarriage. 1. 2. 2) Environmental effects: The sound pollution will harm animals besides affect humans health. It will damage their nervous system, attacking their minds until they lose control and thus become dangerous. Moreover, sound pollution will also cause high level of stress and increasing the risk of mortality. The animals which communicate using sounds will be disturbed by the surrounding unwanted sounds.

For example, it is found that there were certain species of beached whales died due to the loud sound of military sonar. Furthermore, the animal’s communication will get louder than before. It is because when they speak, it will mask other species’ voice. Hence, the whole ecosystem will speak louder at the end. 1. 2. 3) Property effects: High rise buildings, monuments or even bridges are very dangerous if expose to noise pollution. As it will creates waves and then hit on the walls. Sometimes even creating cracks and weaken the whole buildings structure and stability. 1. ) Solution for sound pollution Since the sound pollution brings a lot of harmful effects, hence the problem had been taken into consideration and the government is trying to solve it as soon as possible. Thus, scientific and technology method had been used and applied in order to curb these sound pollution. First of all, to reduce roadway noise caused by the vehicles on the roads, there are ways like limitation of vehicles speeds, alteration of the road surface suture, there’s design, the use of noise barriers along the roads, use of traffic controls that smooth vehicles flow to reduce braking and acceleration.

In addition, motor vehicles are encouraged and advised better to be fitted with silencers or noise suppressing equipment so that it can minimize the noise pollution. There is an example where at Melbourne, Australia, they had built a unique structure along the roadway which is called the sound tube and it was specially designed so that it can reduce the noise on the road. The picture 1 shows the sound tube which built along the roadway. Picture 1 Besides that, the aircraft noise can be reduced by redesign the quieter jet engines.

Several consideration and alteration had been made on the pathway of the aircraft and the time of day they use. Meanwhile, new airports such as KALI are located away from residential areas to prevent sound disturbance. Next, the industrial noise can be solved by make changes on the industrial equipment, operation of machines, vibration control, sound proof cabin and sound absorbing materials. Workers are to be provided extra protection against the sound pollution, for instance by wearing the earplugs when operating machines.

Any new factories have to be moved to places far away from housing areas and prohibited from operating at night. Trees and shrubs may be planted too around the building to absorb the sounds. Other than these solutions, the government has implemented the noise laws to reduce the sound pollution. This may contain a prohibition against making noise and set firm limits and provide guidelines for the level of noise allowable at certain period of a day and only for specific activities. For example, most city ordinance had prohibited sound above a threshold level at night, during 1 Mom to Sam.

Honking of honks should be banned in certain places such as, hospital or residential area. Furthermore, silent zones should be created near schools and hospitals to encourage those buildings to make them noise proof. Besides that, firecrackers should be banned as well especially during festive season as it will cause serious sound pollution. Lastly, is to create public awareness through education. The public should be aware of sound pollution and must know how to control and prevent it. Through the radio, TV, newsreels in cinema halls, the public can be educated about the ways to reduce noise.

At home, parents are encourage to teach their kids to keep radio or TV’ volume low, not to honk unnecessarily on the road, talk with a softer tone and other ways of minimizing unwanted noise. 2) Water pollution The term “water pollution” generally refers to human-induced changes to water quality. According to the dictionary, pollution is defined as make something dirty or impure, especially by adding harmful or unpleasant substances. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from a pipe or the release of livestock waste into a nearby water body and unfit for intended use is considering polluted.

The contaminations are affects drinking water, river, lakes and oceans all over the world. It’s not only affected the natural environment, but also directly threatens the health of humans and aquatic life. There are two general categories of water pollutants. The first is direct sources or point-source pollution, in which the pollution comes from harmful substances and discharged from a discrete location. Sewage outfalls and oil spills are examples of direct source. The second category is indirect source or non-point Source pollution, referring to all of the other discharges that deliver intimations to water bodies.

Acid rain and unconfined run off from agricultural or urban areas are example of indirect sources. 2. 1) Causes of Water Pollution The sources of water pollution are such as domestic households, industrial and agricultural practices which produce wastewater that can cause pollution of many lakes and rivers. First of all, sewage as well as domestic and farm waste are often allowed to pollute rivers and dams. Sewage is the Wastewater that Often contain urine and laundry waste. Clean the sewage is the major problem in developing countries as many people in Hess areas do not have access to sanitary conditions and clean water. Unclean sewage water in such areas can contaminate the environment and cause diseases such as diarrhea. Next, industrial waste is one of the serious problem that causing the water pollution. It produces pollutants that are extremely harmful to people and the environment. For example, the pollute water occur as many industrial facilities use freshwater to carry away waste from the plant into the river, lakes and oceans. There are several industrial sources are pollutant water, which include sulfur, ails, oil and petrochemicals. Sulfur is a non- metallic substance that is harmful for marine life.

While, ails is the common source that pollute the oceans seriously. Then, oil will forms a thick layer on the water surface and does not dissolve in water. Further, petrochemicals are formed from gas or petrol that can be toxic and harm mariner’s life. Another source of water pollution is agriculture which including commercial livestock and poultry farming. Agriculture consider as the source of many organic and inorganic pollutants in surface waters and groundwater. For example, animal wastes are demanding high in oxygen, material, nitrogen ND phosphorus, and they often harbor pathogenic organisms.

Moreover, wastes from commercial feeders are contained and disposed of on land. Furthermore, water pollution also can cause by oil pollution. Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from oil spills, routine shipping, run-offs and clumping. Although, Oil spills cause is a localized problem but it can be harmful for local marine wildlife such as fish, birds and the others. On the other hand, the oil spill from a tanker is considered as severe problem because there is such a huge quantity of oil being sprit into one place.

When he oil split into water, oil cannot dissolve by the water, and later, a thick sludge is form in the water. This suffocates fish, gets caught in the feathers of marine birds and stopping them from flying. Lastly, atmospheric deposition is the pollution of the water which caused by air pollution. In the atmosphere, water particles mix with carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This forms a weak acids. Air pollution means that water vapor absorbs more of these gases and becomes even more acidic. When it rains, the water is polluted with these gases and this is called acid rain. 2. Effect of water pollution Basically, all types of water pollution are harmful to human, animals and environment, it may not damage our health immediately, only will affect after long term exposure. It is very common that the water we drinking, cooking, bathing, washing are all being suffer by wastewater. If we look around the Klan Valley, we can see the obvious Wastage and pollution of Water such as, leaking pipes, water thefts, garbage floating on rivers and our own careless use of these resources. Besides that, industrial waste often contains many toxic compounds that damage the health of aquatic animals.

Those who eat the poisoned aquatic animals may get food poison. Some of the toxins in industrial waste may only have a mild effect whereas other can be fatal. Yet, sulfate particles from acid rain can cause harm the health of marine life in the rivers and lakes it contaminates, and can result in mortality. In addition, suspended particles in freshwater reduces the quality of drinking water for humans and the aquatic environment for marine life. Meanwhile, suspended particles can often reduce the amount of sunlight penetrating the water and disrupting the growth Of photosynthesis plants and Cicero-organisms.

Water pollution is harmful to whole planet, if we still choose to do bother these problem, we may face on to death. To prevent water pollution, long-term solutions are needed not just addressing immediate needs with no regard for the consequences. Here are some simple guidelines in everyday life. Firstly, turning off the tap when running water is not necessary, it is to conserve water. This helps prevents water shortage and reduces the amount of contaminated water that needs treatment. Next, don’t throw paint Oils or other forms Of litter down to the drain. Try to be careful when using he sink or toilet by throwing something.

Beside that, take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilizers. This can prevents runoff of the material into nearby water sources. Furthermore, by having more plants also tend to prevent fertilizer, pesticide and contaminated water from running off into nearby water sources. Next, do not throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans. In contrast, we need to help clean up any litter when see on beaches or in rivers and lakes, make sure it is safe to collect the litter and put it in a nearby dustbin. Eventually, government also can give penalty to the industries that use freshwater to carry away waste into rivers and oceans.

Land pollution is the degradation of earth’s land surfaces which often caused by human activities, misuse of the soil and the addition of undesirable matter to the land that damage the terrestrial organisms. 3. 1) Causes of land There are several causes that lead to land pollution. Firstly is cause by disposal of solid waste. There are several useless, unwanted, or hazardous solid wastes that typically may be classified as follows: Garbage: Decomposable waste from food. Rubbish Non- decomposable wastes, either combustible such as paper, wood, and Lott or non-combustible, such as metal, glass and ceramics.

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