Seaborne Game Reserve was established in 1 988 as a wildlife education centre. Although small, at just under 600 hectares, it is now the third busiest reserve in the whole of Botswana. The park has network of game viewing roads, a visitors education centre, picnic sites with barbeques stands set among tall trees, a ‘hide’ for viewing game around waterhole and a ‘bird hide’ overlooking a read-filled expanse of wetland.
A detailed route map s supplied at the entrance gate, which is a short distance off Limp Drive on the eastern side of the city. A variety of wildlife animals are found there like impala, kudus, ostrich, zebra, gemsbok and springbok. The reserve is also popular with bird watches. The variety of habitats within the pack, from thorn shrubs and woodland forest and marshland has attracted a wide range of birds including raptors, like the snake eagle, the crimson booboo and the gallinule, which inhabits the wetlands. Seaborne Game Reserve was established to enhance conservation awareness in Seaborne and the surrounding areas.
The impacts of tourism upon the environment of Seaborne Game Reserve can be separated into two broad categories of positive and negative impacts. The positive impacts futurism are that tourism help to protect habitants and wildlife within the park from other more environmentally harmful forms development such as logging or from other forms of destructive human activity such as poaching. Looking at the issue of poaching it is said that poaching in Seaborne Game Reserve is less because it is closer to a police camp called Special Support Group which makes poachers to be afraid to poach there.
Tourism has also makes the environment to look beautiful because it has makes some improvements in tourism landscape. The landscape made the environment in the reserve to look attractive which attract tourists and at the same time reducing the effects of soil erosion. Tourism has increased the number of some species of plants and animal’s life, that’s why in the reserve there are a Wide range of birds including raptors, like the snake eagle.
There are even some improvements in manufactured and natural environment so as to make the environment in the game reserve to be of good quality which will then later satisfy the demands of tourists. It shows that tourism at Seaborne Game Reserve has created beneficial effects on the environment by contributing to environmental protection and conservation which is a way to raise awareness of environmental values and it can serve as a tool to finance protection of natural areas and increase their economic importance.
This positive impact on the environment Of Seaborne Game Reserve makes the reserve to receive a large number of tourists, thus making the negative impacts from tourism to occur when the level of visitors use is greater than the environments ability to cope with this use within the acceptable limits of change. Environmental impacts of tourism which are negative in terms of efficiency and use might be caused by careless behavior by tourist which can also affect wildlife and ecosystems.
A common problem associated is littering, which can potentially result in the death of animals eating the litter and also lead to the attraction of predators of endemic species into areas where they would not normally go or in areas with concentrations of tourist activities and appealing natural attractions, waste disposal is a problem and improper disposal can be a major despoiler of the natural environment. G picnics in the reserve mostly causes this. (Holder, 2000) Noise pollution from airplanes, cars or buses causes distress to wildlife and can cause animals to alter their natural activity.
This usually happens when the tourist use a vehicle to go around the reserve and at the same time the desire of the tourist to enhance their perceptions of nature by observing wildlife at close quarters. Noise from this vehicles or even picnics also raises the stress levels of animals which are disruptive to their breeding and eating patterns and again this noise can make birds to go Out of the reserve and kook for a peaceful place to stay which might make the attraction in the reserve to be less and reduce tourist demand.
Tourists using the same trail over and over again trample the vegetation and soil, eventually causing damage that can lead to loss of biodiversity and other impacts. Such damage can be even more extensive when visitors frequently stray off established trails. Trampling impacts on vegetation causes loss of ground cover reduce regeneration, change in species composition and reduced plant vigor, and trampling impacts on soil causes increased run-off and accelerated erosion.
The other negative impact on the environment of Seaborne Game Reserve is air pollution. A major source of air pollution within the context of tourism is associated with transport for tourism. This include the use of vehicles in the reserve that tourist use to view wildlife, this vehicles realizes carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which is widely thought to be a major cause of global warming, and the emission of sulfur dioxide contributes to problems of acid rain which destroys forests or habitats.
Air pollution is a threat to the health of wildlife too. Often forests in the reserve suffer negative impacts of tourism n the form of deforestation. Looking at the issue of emissions Seaborne Game Reserve have a picnic site and mostly locals and tourists use firewood to cook their food that they come with, sometimes they can cut the trees that found at the reserve by so doing disturbing the life cycle of different species of trees.
Seaborne Game Reset-eve came up with different strategies to try by all means to reduce the negative impacts Of tourism on the environment by so doing to enhance conservation awareness. The reserve has separate receptacles for mans, bottles, paper and plastics bins by so doing reducing waste in the reserve. The waste is usually then taken for recycling by other companies that the reserve is working in partnership with. For example Gladioli Beverages recycle cans and bottles.
Looking at the issue of the desire of a tourist to enhance their perceptions of nature by observing wildlife at close quarters, the reserve has put a policy to avoid such behavior and they also have hired trained and loyal employees who take this issue serious and at the same time they came with an idea who charging a high amount to observe wildlife at lose quarters, this strategy has reduced the desire of a tourist who will want to observe wildlife at a close level. Seaborne Game Reserve has come up with an idea of selling firewood so as to avoid tourist from cutting down some trees and they make sure that the picnics are supervised.
The reserve also came up with a strategy of making an organic garden demonstrating low water usage as they are using recycled or harvested water and use organic growing techniques to take care of their landscape environment. Sellable Recycling Drop-off Centre usually helps in providing the recycled water. Seaborne Game Reset-eve management has put a suggestion box at their reception area for the public or tourist so as to hear some suggestions that might help them in improving so as to promote sustainable environment protection.
The reserve has also build a visitor’s educational centre where they provide information about the reserve and the importance of conserving the environment which is their main aim by so doing promoting sustainable environmental protection and also the importance of not harming wild animal. ROLES OF STAKEHOLDERS As Seaborne Game Reserve was established to enhance conservation wariness in Seaborne and the surrounding areas, the reserve have different stakeholders that work in hand with the reserve to ensure that the main aim or mission is meet and those stakeholders each play a different role.