A number of natural and human activities results in emission of harmful chemicals which pollute the air. Increase in combustion of fossil fuels, smoke from industries and volcanic eruption are few of the factors which contributes in air pollution.
Some pollutants such as Black Carbon, lead, Carbon Dioxide, articulate matters when differ in their original and natural concentration in air reacts negatively with the human health and diseases such as lung cancer, memory loss, cardiovascular diseases . Research has been carried out and we have explained the reactions of air pollutants on human health. Introduction As the world is developing and introducing new technologies to make our life easier and more comfortable, at the same time they are delivering certain concern such as pollution.
The pollution is destroying the Ecosystem of our mother earth. Furthermore, pollution causes global warming (rise in average enrapture of earth’s atmosphere) which results in dramatic climate shift. There are several types of pollutions such as Noise pollution, Air pollution, Water pollution, Land pollution and Soil pollution. Air pollution is the mixture of toxic and harmful gases which alter the natural environment and negatively effects human health.
With the passage of time air pollution is rapidly increasing due to a number of different factors such as burning of fossil fuels, smoke from manufacturing industries, deforestation etc. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks.
In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. (Marine Kampala, 2007) Related questions of our research are; how air pollution affects our health? What are the different types of diseases caused by air pollution? Our objective is to Determine the effects of air pollution on human health Describe few diseases caused by air pollution Literature Review Air pollution is a heterogeneous, complex mixture of gases, liquids, and particulate matter.
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent increased risk for cardiovascular events in relation to both short- and long- term exposure to present-day concentrations of ambient pa articulate matter. Several plausible mechanistic pathways have been described, including enhanced coagulation/thrombosis, a propensity for arrhythmias, acute arterial vasoconstriction, systemic inflammatory responses, and the chronic promotion of atherosclerosis. (Robert D. Brook, et al. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an association between particulate air pollution and not only exacerbations of illness in people with respiratory disease but also rise in the numbers of deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory disease among older people. We suggest that such ultra-fine particles are able to provoke alveolar inflammation, with release of mediators capable, in susceptible individuals, of causing exacerbations of lung disease and of increasing blood calculability, thus also explaining the observed increases in cardiovascular deaths associated with urban pollution episodes.
This hypothesis is testable both experimentally and epidemiologically (Sexton, 2006). Scientists at the University of Michigan, led by Dry. Robert Brook, found that the quality of air you breathe can immediately increase your blood pressure, and cause unhealthy changes in your blood vessels that last for hours and perhaps even days. The study measured the effect of air pollution in healthy people in two cities ? Ann Arbor, Mica. , and Toronto ? where participants were exposed in the lab to the same amount of particulates and ozone that would be found near a local highway. People who breathed in eluted air registered higher blood-pressure readings a short time after exposure, compared with those who breathed filtered air, and their blood vessels showed impairment as long as 24 hours later. Such prolonged hypertension is a known risk factor for both heart disease and stroke. (Park, 2009) Long-term particulate matter exposures were most strongly associated with death due to chemic heart disease, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. For these causes of death, a 10 micrograms/cubic meter elevation in particulate matter was associated with 8% to 18% increases in mortality risk.
Risks for makers were comparable or larger than for non-smokers. Death attributable to respiratory diseases had relatively weak associations. (Pope CA 3rd, 2003) Children who live in neighborhoods with heavily polluted by automobile traffic have lower Sis. They also score worse on other intelligence and memory tests than children in healthier environments according to a new study by NINES supported researchers and the Harvard School of Public Health. These findings raise additional concerns about the health of children living in generally poor urban environments near transportation corridors or heavy industry.
The more heavily exposed children were to black carbon, the lower their scores on several intelligence tests. For example, the average IQ of the most heavily exposed children was 3. 4 points less than children with low exposure. When the researchers adjusted for the effects of parents’ education, birth weight, and exposure to tobacco smoke, the associations remained. The effects were roughly equivalent to those seen in children whose mothers smoked ten cigarettes per day while pregnant. (Cassia SF, 2008) The focus of research on health effects of air pollution, according to the study, has shifted to smaller particles (PM. Because they could be deposited deeper in the lung alveoli where they cannot be removed by the culinary action (a process that removes larger particulates) and consequently have negative effects on the lungs. “Due to the large surface area of PM. 5, toxins (for instance, organic compounds and heavy metals) can be absorbed onto the surface. Organs such as the lungs and heart, cells, and DNA can be damaged by the toxins. The PM. 5 particles are, therefore, regarded as being more toxic than IMO and TTS. “Air pollution is a critical problem in Asian cities with possibly serious health impact.
The WHO estimates that urban air elution contributes each year to about 800,000 deaths and 4. 6 million healthy life-years lost worldwide but the burden is not equally distributed: approximately APPC of the deaths and lost life-years occur in the developing countries of Asia. “(allays, 2013). Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that start off in one or both lungs; usually in the cells that line the air passages. The abnormal cells do not develop into healthy lung tissue; they divide rapidly and form tumors. As tumors become larger and more numerous, they undermine the lungs ability to provide the bloodstream with oxygen.
Tumors that remain in one place and do not appear to spread are known as “benign tumors”. Malignant tumors, the more dangerous ones, spread to other parts of the body either through the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. Metastasis refers to cancer spreading beyond its site of origin to other parts of the body. When cancer spreads it is much harder to treat successfully. Primary lung cancer originates in the lungs, while secondary lung concertmasters somewhere else in the body, metastasis’s, and reaches the lungs. They are considered different types of cancers and are to treated in the same way.
According to the National Cancer Institute, by the end of 201 2 there will have been 226,160 new lung cancer diagnoses and 160,340 lung-cancer related deaths in the LISA. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 7. 6 million deaths globally each year are caused by cancer; cancer represents 13% Of all global deaths. As seen below, lung cancer is by far the number one cancer killer. Total deaths worldwide caused by Lung cancer is 1,370,000. (medicines, 2012) Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women worldwide. In the U. S. Lung anger is responsible for 29% of cancer deaths, more than those from breast cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer combined. Estimated new cancer cases for the year 201 2 are 226, 160 and the estimate numbers of people who die due to lung cancer are 160,340. (Rebecca Siege, 201 2) Conceptual Framework IV DVD Methodology and methods The method of collecting data is qualitative by gaining comprehensive literature review and by relaying upon secondary data, on air pollution and resulting diseases. This is an explanatory research in which we are explaining what air pollution is and what the sources of Air Pollution are.
We would be explaining how air pollution effects human health in several ways. There are many diseases cause by air pollution but our focus is mainly on cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer and lower IQ level especially in children cause by lead found in polluted air also leads to premature death. The data is collected by visit Eng different websites and critically analyzing published researches, journals and articles regarding our topic of research. We have supported our findings with previous experiment carried out by well renowned scientist from all around the world. Analysis of finding
Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular disease (also called heart diseases) is a class of diseases that involves the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries). Cardiovascular diseases is one of the very serious health problem. Approximately 82 million people in America suffer from some form of cardiovascular disease, causing about 2,200 deaths a day, averaging one death every 39 seconds(Johns, 2000). Study shows that the new cases registered in are 226,1 60 and 160,340 patients died in the year 2012 due to cardiovascular diseases in US only. (Medina Kamala, 2012).
Air pollution effects our respiratory system, as we all know that heart and lungs are the organs which play a vital role in the whole process. Unfortunately both of these organs are adversely affected by air pollution. Air pollution greatly affects the blood pressure which alters the blood vessels and ultimately leads to life threatening problems like heart failure and heart stroke. Scientists at the University of Michigan, led by Dry. Robert Brook, found that the quality of air you breathe can immediately increase your blood pressure, and cause unhealthy changes in your blood vessels that last for hours and perhaps even says.
The study measured the effect of air pollution in healthy people in two cities ? Ann Arbor, Mica. , and Toronto ? where participants were exposed in the lab to the same amount Of particulates and ozone that would be found near a local highway. People who breathed in polluted air registered higher blood-pressure readings a short time after exposure, compared with those who breathed filtered air, and their blood vessels showed impairment as long as 24 hours later. Such prolonged hypertension is a known risk factor for both heart disease and stroke. (Park, 2009). Particulate Matter (PM) refers to small r liquid particles floating in the air.
These particles are made up of different substances including Carbon, Sulfur, Nitrogen and Metal compounds. One on the largest source of particulate matter in environment is residential wood burning. Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Chronic exposure to PM plays in causing cardiovascular disease. Even short-term exposure to PM. 5 over a few hours can trigger myocardial infarction’s, cardiac chemist, arrhythmias, heart failure, stroke, exacerbation of peripheral arterial disease, and sudden death.
Chronic exposure to moderately elevated levels also enhances the risk for developing a variety of cardiovascular diseases, possibly including hypertension and systemic atherosclerosis (RD, 2007). Even short-term exposure to second hand smoke increases platelet activation. Second hand smoke also promotes atherosclerosis. There is strong and consistent evidence that increases in the level of particulate air pollution are associated with reduced heart rate variability and increases in heart rate and blood pressure.
Decreased heart rate variability predicts a higher risk of cardiac death or arrhythmic events after acute myocardial infarction (MI), presumably reflecting the adverse effects of increased sympathetic tone. All these effects indicate that air pollution has an impact on heart disease. In any event, it is clear that these risks are real and substantial. Indeed, of the estimated 53,000 deaths due to second hand smoke, 37,000 are attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Stanton A Gallant, 2002) Unrepresentative Effects Black carbon air pollution not only affects our respiratory system but also has unrepresentative (loss of structure or functions of neurons) effects on the human brain. Black Carbon is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuel, bio fuel and bio mass. It is emitted both naturally and by human activity. This graph shows major sources of Black carbon emissions Some students at the Harvard University carried out a research on the children and how their thinking capacity and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) effected by the carbon air pollution.
The Harvard group’s results show dramatic differences in the 202 children they examined. These kids ranged in age from eight to eleven years and were from the Boston, MA area. The more heavily exposed children were to black carbon, the lower their scores on overall intelligence tests. For example, the average IQ of the most heavily exposed children was 3. 4 points less than children with low exposure. When the researchers adjusted for the effects of parents’ education, birth weight, and exposure to tobacco smoke, the associations remained.
The effects were roughly equivalent to those seen in children whose mothers smoked ten cigarettes per day while pregnant. (Scalia SF, 2008). Lead is a soft metal that is found in air in the form of very small particles. Lead is one of the most dangerous elements if its concentration is found to be more than 0. 1 MGM/ cubic meter. Soil erosion, volcanic eruption, sea spray and bushfire results in the emission of lead into the air. Large amount of Lead in air results in many diseases, destruction of nervous system is one of them which leads to decrease in IQ lowers the learning ability and changes in the behavior Of children.
Exposure to lead for more than a few weeks can cause nerve damage, inhibiting electrical signals and slowing the transmission of oxygen to the brain. That can lead to lower intelligencer irreversible learning disabilities, behavioral problems and mental retardation, according to the WHO (Bennett, 2009). LUNG CANCER Eng cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that start off in one or both lungs; usually in the cells that line the air passages. The abnormal cells do not develop into healthy lung tissue; they divide rapidly and form tumors.
As tumors become larger and more numerous, they undermine the lung’s ability to provide the bloodstream with oxygen. Tumors that remain in one place and do not appear to spread are known as “benign tumors”. Malignant tumors, the more dangerous ones, spread to other parts of the body either through the bloodstream or the lymphatic system (The lymphatic yeses is a defense system for the body. It filters out organisms that cause disease, produces white blood cells, and generates disease, fighting antibodies. It also distributes fluids and nutrients in the body and drains excess fluids and protein so that tissues do not swell).
Metastasis refers to cancer spreading beyond its site of origin to other parts of the body. When cancer spreads it is much harder to treat successfully. Primary lung cancer originates in the lungs, while secondary lung cancer starts somewhere else in the body, metastasis’s, and reaches the lungs. They are considered efferent types of cancers and are not treated in the same way. According to the National Cancer Institute, in the year 226,1 60 new people were diagnosed with lung cancer and 1 60,340 died due to lung cancer in the CICS.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 7. 6 million deaths globally each year are caused by cancer; cancer represents of all global deaths. As seen below, lung cancer is by far the number one cancer killer. Total deaths worldwide caused by Lung cancer is 1 ,370,OHO. (medicines, 201 2) Although Lung cancer is most commonly found in tobacco smokers but is also found in on smokers due to air pollution. As studies show that air contain cancerous carcinogens. Carcinogens are the substances capable of causing cancer in living tissue.
Although epidemiological research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the present day. This concern is based on the fact that known carcinogens continue to be released into outdoor air from industrial sources, power plants, and motor icicles, and on a body of epidemiological research that provides some evidence for an association between outdoor air pollution and lung cancer (Cohen, 2000).
The following table shows the difference between urban and rural air and the amount of carcinogens it usually contains. (Cohen, 2000) Carcinogens are the element which enters into the human body and develops into a tumor which seriously effects our body activity. The combustion of fossil fuels for power generation and transportation produces gaseous pollutants such as sulfuric dioxide and oxides of nitrogen that are inverted into fine particulate air pollution in the atmosphere.
Epidemiological studies provide no consistent evidence of increased lung cancer risk from occupational exposure to sulfuric dioxide; however, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IIRC) has classified strong sulfuric acid aerosol as a known human carcinogen based on epidemiological findings of increased lung and laryngeal cancer in heavily exposed occupational group (20). (Cohen, 2000). Altitudes Various altitudes classified as hazardous air pollutants by the LIST. EPA (e. G. , formaldehyde, accidentally) are present in urban ambient air largely due to he combustion Of gasoline and diesel fuel.
Formaldehyde has been classified by IIRC as a probable human carcinogen, on the basis of evidence from animal experiments and epidemiological studies in occupational groups of exposure-related excess nasal and moneychangers cancer. The combustion of alternative fuels, such as methanol and oxygenated fuels contains the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether results in greater allayed emissions and contributes to increased ambient concentrations in locales where they are widely used(Cohen, 2000). Project Management Budget: Tasks Paper work 200 Internet 1000
Refreshment Total 2200 Team Task: We divided our whole research into four parts, each member was assigned a specific part to focus on, when every member had his/her finding we all got together and analyses the finding. Impair Jaw focused on how air pollution is produce and what are the different diseases caused by it. Amaze Salem collected information regarding Lung cancer. Meshes Madam collected information regarding cardiovascular diseases caused by air pollution. Gaza Assam gathered data regarding unrepresentative effects, and compile data to make a complete report. Conclusion & Recommendation
Air pollution is causing harmful effects on human health. The sources of air pollution are mainly wood burning, fossil fuels and manufacturing industries. As we can see the diseases happening due to the particulate matter present in the air causing cardiovascular diseases (heart failure & heart stroke), respiratory diseases (lung cancer) and unrepresentative effects I. E lower IQ . Particulate matter basically includes all the pollutants present in the air such as black carbon and lead. Lead is also affecting the IQ of the children, their IQ is adversely affected by the air pollution and this has been proved through scientific studies.
Black carbon is not only affecting our respiratory system but it also has unrepresentative effects affecting the nervous system as well. Analysis of findings has been done through analyzing and taking statistics of different diseases caused due to air pollution and the deaths due to these diseases. In addition with the passage of time air pollution is increasing due to factors (sources) stated above and due to this short life expectancy and premature mortality cases have been seen. As we have discussed about the air pollution and how it effects our life’s it is quite clear that we should take assures to control the air pollution.
Manufacturing industries should be asked to consume minimum amount of fossil fuels. Industries should be far away from the residual area. We should stop deforestation and encourage plantation. We should organize campaign and seminar to create awareness regarding smoking. All the waste material should properly recycled and should not be burnt. Public transport should be encouraged as it will reduce the combustion of fossil fuels for cars.