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The Intertribal wetlands though are resilient to this stress through adaptations and as well as induced human train through modern knowledge and conservation programs. Mangroves normally grow in the inter-tidal areas, with loose, soft sedimentary soil along the coast. The soil has an unstable substratum, a rather high salinity level and lacks predictability for oxygen intake. Living in such an adverse condition, mangroves have their unique ways to adapt and grow.

In order to become resilient towards natural stress intertribal wetlands survive through physiological adaptations, mangroves are able to live in harsh saline environments. The mangroves have the ability to excrete salt; these mangroves can complete this process through the many glands which are found on the leaves, where tiny white flecks of salt are frequently visible. Some species such as the Grey Mangrove can also tolerate the storage of large amounts of salt in their leaves which are discarded when the salt load is too high.

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Mangroves can also restrict the opening of their stomata (these are small pores through which carbon dioxide and water vapor are exchanged during photosynthesis). This allows the mangrove to conserve its fresh water, ability vital to its survival in a saline environment. Mangroves are able to turn heir leaves to reduce the surface area of the leaf exposed to the hot sun. This enables them to reduce water loss through evaporation. Mangroves also hold the ability to exclude salts as the cells within the roots prevent salt ions while taking water molecules.

This is a process which can exclude of salt. A distinctive feature of mangroves surviving towards natural stress are exposed roots. While these roots come in many different shapes and sizes, they all perform an important function structural support in the soft soils. Some species of mangroves have above-ground roots. These are filled with spongy tissue and with small holes that offer structural support and allow oxygen to be transferred to the roots trapped below ground in the low oxygen soils.

The roots of many mangrove species are also adapted to stop the intake of a lot of the salt from the water before it reaches the plant. Some mangrove species have evolved to produce seeds that float. The tide acts as the method of distribution to avoid crowding of young plants. They retain their seeds until after it has matured. When it has matured to this stage, the parent tree drops t into the water, where it remains dormant until it finds the soil and is able to put out roots.

The size of the wetland ecosystem has decreased significantly due to human advancement and land use. The once abundant shoreline has been dramatically altered disrupting the ecosystem. This impact has led to traditional and contemporary management strategies being utilized for protection and conservation of the intertribal wetland for the future fauna, flora and people. The wetlands are Seen as an ecosystem that is at risk and have had contemporary management practices put into place to protect and onshore the natural area for future generations.

The contemporary management practices for the wetlands include early contemporary, which did more damage than help, and late contemporary, which is proving to be effective. The inter-tidal wetlands at Bicentennial Park required vital alteration due to the extensive negative impacts from early Europeans. Legislation and policies were employed as a late contemporary management strategy to obligate change and avoid further damage, particularly to the salt marsh community which suffered extensive damage and is now listed as an endangered species.

The major laws were employed by the RAMS convention, the convention provides a framework for international cooperation in the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. Wind patterns was a feature altered due to human modifications by the introductions of walkways and buildings within the wetlands. Urban and industrial land uses within the Bowel’s creek catchments have contributed to increased levels of turbidity. The introduction of bund walls changed the hydrology of the site by modifying the flow of water. The reduction of flow hen resulted in affecting soil moisture in the mangroves.

This has potential to increase levels of acid sulfate, damaging the health of mangroves and the organisms that recycle materials essential for the functioning ecosystem. Areas of intertribal wetlands have been cleared to accommodate residential and industrial land uses such as transport and chemical facilities. Disturbances of energy and nutrient cycles of intertribal wetlands include the introduction Of feral animals e. G. Foxes and cats. Introduced species were not common in the natural wetlands and severely disrupt the food and nutrient yeses by affecting intertribal wetland bird species.

Other changes to the natural processes of the intertribal wetlands include the impact of chemicals and altered soil pH on the organisms and bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixing and recycling. Though these intertribal wetlands were vulnerable they have grown resilient with the conservation of today. There are many organizations and groups which protect and conserve the intertribal wetlands of Homeboys use the method of exclusion. Public access is available to the public in small designated areas while other areas are restricted access only. This is controlled by walkways and signs.

Education has had a huge impact on the protection of the intertribal wetlands. Due to the educations the publics opinion on the wetlands have changed. The management of the wetlands include the rehabilitation on the removal of human induced modifications which has caused stress, for example, some bund walls have been removed to restore tidal flashing’s. Another form of protection have been the introduction of pollution booms which were designed to float on top of the water, where oil and floating rubbish is caught and do not interfere with the loran and fauna within the water and soil.

Intertribal wetlands within the past and present have passed natural stress such as high tidal floods and high salinity with the use of physical adaptations. In the past society Viewed intertribal wetlands as mosquito infested environments though with public views on wetlands changed the human induced modifications in the past which have caused stress on the wetlands have been overcome with the resilience to pass it with the use of human restoration and conservation. This is completed with Legislations, education and knowledge, and action plans.

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