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Western civilizations and Asiatic civilizations can differ a batch which would ensue in different therapies being used in the two different states. The group has researched on the differences and similarities in the two states: Japan and England.

Difference of Culture between Japan and England

High-context versus Low-Context

In Japan, communicators assume a great trade of commonalty. They can be close, oblique and bafflingly unforthcoming with information. As Nipponese are inactive, dependent and gestural, they tend to utilize and construe the milieus, to develop a deeper apprehension of the message conveyed. They besides tend to be leery of words and are more concerned with actions. Hence, they believe in utilizing silence as a manner of pass oning ; they believe that it is better to speak excessively small than excessively much. Therefore, in reding, Nipponese clients are likely to give really small account as to what they mean and their replies are frequently really obscure.

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In England, English are expressed and they prefer to hold things to the full spelled out. Hence, there is considerable dependance on what was said or written. In reding, more duty would be placed on the counselor to maintain up their cognition base and remain in informal webs. As clients rely on spoken and written linguistic communication for significance, this resulted in more account are required to be given by the counselor during the session.

A Nipponese client with Depression may travel to their doctor with ailments of failing, giddiness, and concerns, while an English client is more likely to travel straight to a healer with ailments of deficiency of pleasance and glumness.A difference in footings of civilization context can ensue in different behavior. The tabular array below shows the differences between a high-context civilization, such as England, and a low-context civilization, such as Japan:




Overtness of messages

Many covert and inexplicit messages, with usage of metaphor and reading between the linesMany covert and expressed messages that are simple and clear


A Locus of control and ascription for failure

Internal venue of controlPpersonal credence forfailureA External venue of controlBlame of others for failure

A Use of non-verbal communicating

A Much gestural communicatingMore focal point on verbal communicating than organic structure linguistic communication

Expression of reaction

Reserved, inward reactionsVisible, external, outward reaction

Coherence and separation of groups

Strong differentiation between clique and outgroupStrongA sense of householdFlexible and unfastened grouping forms, altering as needed

A People bonds

Strong people bonds with association to household and communityDelicate bonds between people with small sense of trueness

Degree of committedness to relationships

A High committedness to long-run relationshipsRelationship more of import than undertakingA Low committedness to relationshipTask more of import than relationships

Flexibility of clip


Time is unfastened and flexible.Procedure is more of import than merchandiseTime is extremely organized.Merchandise is more of import than procedure[ Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //changingminds.

org/explanations/culture/hall_culture.htm ]


High Power Distance versus Low Power Distance

Nipponese civilization is one where there is a high power distance, where there is a great accent on hierarchal construction. For case, a patient would give physician his due regard as the physician would be positions as person of higher hierarchal position as comparisons to the patient. To the Japanese, short-circuiting a superior is insubordination. Hence, Nipponese clients would anticipate their healer to presume an autocratic and directing function, by doing suggestions and giving advice. In doctor-patient relationships, patients tell the physician their symptoms.

The physicians so diagnose the patient ‘s unwellness and prescribe medical specialty. The patient merely listens to the physician without oppugning as in the cultural norm, it is sometimes non allowed to be independent in forepart of an authorization figure. Therefore, it is likely that Nipponese clients would non oppugn or give their sentiments to the healers.In the English point of position, this is seen as dependant. However, from Japanese ‘s position, it is a manner of demoing regard by giving power to those in authorization. English feels that short-circuiting a higher-up is non insubordination.English has a civilization of low power distance as they believe that everyone deserve the same regard.

There is small accent on hierarchal construction. Therefore, it is ever easier for subsidiary to pass on with his superior. This is really different from Japan, as English would most likely inquiry the higher authorization if he does non hold. As such, an English would be more likely to oppugn or give sentiments to the healer.

Collectivist versus Individualist

Japan has a collectivized civilization, where people are expected to place with and work good in groups which protect them in exchange for trueness and conformity. As such, Nipponese have high values of hierarchy. This civilization can be reflected in the curative relationship. Nipponese clients perceive the clinical psychologists as really powerful authorization figures and they try to organize a hierarchal relationship.

This can include the client ‘s projection of how to act absolutely as the less powerful, which needs to be rejected. They expected that they would have advice and follow it in their day-to-day lives.England, on the other manus, has an individualist civilization. They are more independent, extraversive and more verbal compared to the Japan civilization. They valued single uniqueness and self-government. They do non experience the same force per unit area to submerse or give themselves to other factors.

Eye Contact

Nipponese tends to favor indirect oculus contact over direct as they may happen direct oculus contact as intimidating and threatening. It is besides a tabu for a female to look at a male in the oculus.

Therefore, Nipponese clients normally use indirect oculus contact when talking to healers as a mark of regard and respect.Eye contact communicates really otherwise in England as compared to Japan. Eye contact is considered proper and polite in the English ‘s civilization. Eye contact is a manner of demoing attending to the talker and affirmatory. Hence, English clients an healer normally maintain frequent oculus contact.

Similarities of Culture between Japan and England

While they have much differences, Nipponese and English clients besides have similarities in reding facets.


Both the Japanese and the English have monochronic civilizations.

Peoples of this civilization topographic point great importance on making things on clip. They value methodicalness and therefore prefer to make things one at a clip. In other words, they focus on the occupation at manus. They besides dislike breaks. Therefore, it is of import to hold reding Sessionss organised suitably and seasonably because Nipponese and English clients tend to follow to their agendas purely.

Both Japanese and English belong to past-oriented societies. They are frequently concerned with traditional values and ways of making things. They tend to be conservative in direction and decelerate to alter those things that are tied to the yesteryear.

They besides tell a batch about their background and history. As a consequence, Nipponese and English clients look to the yesteryear for inspiration, motive, nutriment, hope, counsel and way.

Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

Our group has identified the Cognitive-behavioural therapy ( CBT ) as the type of psychotherapeutics used in the England.CBT was developed through the amalgamation of the schools of behavioral and cognitive psychological science, whereby the former is focused on actions and the latter the ‘uncontrolled ‘ head. Subsequently, CBT is a manner of coming to footings with and altering thought forms to enable clients to cover with peculiar issues better.CBT changes how clients think ( Cognitive ) and what they do ( Behavior ) . Alternatively of concentrating on the causes of client ‘s hurt or symptoms in the past unlike other speaking interventions, CBT looks for ways to better province of head now.

It helps clients make sense of overpowering jobs by interrupting them down into smaller parts. This makes it easier to see how these parts are connected and how they affect the client. These parts include a Situation, Thoughts, Emotions, Physical feelings and Actions.A Each of these countries can impact the others.The tabular array below illustrate the point mentioned:A Situation:You ‘ve had a bad twenty-four hours, feel fed up, so travel out shopping.

As you walk down the route, person you know walks by and, seemingly, ignores you.UnhelpfulHelpfulIdeas:He/she ignored me – they do n’t wish meHe/she looks a spot wrapped up in themselves – I wonder if there ‘s something incorrect?Emotional:FeelingssLow, sad and rejectedConcerned for the other individualPhysical:Stomach spasms, low energy, experience illNone – feel comfyAction:Go place and avoid themGet in touch to do certain they ‘re All right[ Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.rcpsych. ]


The same state of affairs has led to two really different consequences, depending on how clients thought about the state of affairs. How they think has affected how they felt and what they did. In the illustration in the left manus column, a decision was reached without much grounds for it and this affair because it had led to a figure of uncomfortable feelings and an unhelpful behavior.A AFig 1: [ Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //

uk/cbt.html ]This “ barbarous circle ” ( as illustrated in dig1 ) can do clients experience worse as they start to believe unrealistic and unpleasant things about themselves. This happens because when in hurt, they are more likely to leap to decisions and interpret things in extreme and unhelpful ways.ACBT breaks this barbarous circle of altered thought, feelings and behaviour. When parts of the sequence are seen clearly, they can be changed, and so alter the manner clients experience. CBT aims to acquire them to a point where they can “ make it yourself ” , and work out their ain ways of undertaking these problems.A AFor illustration, a adult female believes that her director in secret dislikes her and is seeking to sabotage her occupation.

This makes her dying and depressed at work, so she begins to do some errors.When her director points out her errors, and suggests ways that she can avoid doing them once more, it reinforces her belief that her director dislikes her. As she ‘s positive she ‘s traveling to be fired, her public presentation beads even further. Finally, her director loses forbearance with her performanceA and does fire her.A CBT healer would so try to interrupt this downward rhythm of thought by disputing the adult female ‘s negative and unhelpful ideas. Then the healer would seek to acquire her to establish her behaviour on more realistic ideas and premises.The CBT healer may indicate out thatA the director is unlikelyA to sabotage an employee because it ‘s in the director ‘s involvement to hold productive and motivated staff. Alternatively of seeingA the director ‘s suggestions as a personal onslaught, it would be more helpful for the adult female to seeA them as support and encouragement.

The healer and the adult female would so speak about how she could move in the hereafter based on these more realistic beliefs, such as inquiring for feedback about how she could better andA developing to larn new accomplishments.After several hebdomads of seeking these new thought and behavioural techniques, the adult female ‘s director sees an betterment in her attitude and public presentation, and their relationship continues to better.CBT is by and large performed on a one to one footing and is extremely confidential. There are besides group therapy Sessionss available and sometimes the patient ‘s family/parents/spouses are encouraged to come to one or more Sessionss.CBT is presently having a important grade of attending as the intervention of pick for persons necessitating aid with a assortment of psychological upsets. It is shown to assist with many different types of jobs including anxiousness, depression, terror and phobic disorder. Large Numberss of good constructed experiments have besides shown it to be extremely utile in handling depression and anxiousness upsets. Besides that, it may besides assist clients who have troubles with choler, or a low sentiment of themselves.

Understanding the ground for this current tendency in popularity of CBT can besides be found in the alone features polar to this mode of intervention. There is a simpleness and yet effectivity in the theoretical account which characterizes the constructs of CBT. It is effectual because it teaches the patient to modify forms of believing which affect behavior.

CBT constitutes 15 to 25 % of all the psychotherapeuticss practised in Europe. In peculiarly, CBT appears to be the English authorities ‘s front-runner as ?173 million is invested into a undertaking entitled Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies. In this undertaking, merely CBT healers would be employed. CBT is besides recommended by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence for the intervention of many mental wellness conditions. It is hence one of the most normally used therapies in the private and statutory sectors.

Naikan Therapy

Our group has chosen Naikan therapy that allows client to reflect on their day-to-day activities and people, where the healer will be at that place to steer them to the inquiry. It is considered as “ quiet therapy ” , which is preferred by the Japanese and they do non stress confrontation between healer and patient.Nipponese society is good disciplined and organised in many ways.

Peoples are looked after by society, the environment, and by other people. In this state of affairs, people may hold less demand to look after themselves. Therefore, there are two major points of focal point. One is for clients to larn to hold an equal relationship and asseverate their demands.

The other is to assist clients to happen authorization within them.Many clients will inquire the healer to name their job, stating the client what is go oning and how to response to the state of affairs. They need the blessing on what they could so to do picks in their lives as this is Nipponese manner of demoing regard to authorization. Added, they do non cognize what they want in their lives. Therefore, both healer and client pattern together in the procedure of doing their ain picks.Harmonizing to statistics, there are two chief faiths in Japan, Shintoism and Buddhism, which are 54 % and 40 % of the population severally. Although Shintoism has the largest population in Japan, but traditionally, Buddhism has been the most influential to Nipponese religious life.Naikan Therapy, besides known as Introspective Therapy, was developed in Japan in 1950s, which is based on philosophical Buddhist beliefs.

A It is besides one of the two fastest-growing therapies in Japan. As the pattern of Naikan has become more popularised it has become more of a rational and scientific method of therapy, it retain many of the religious concepts of Buddhism.Interestingly, Naikan has had its greatest impact in the prisons of Japan. In fact, 60 % of the prison installations in Japan are utilizing Naikan therapy. Prison functionaries reported decreased rates of recidivism among naikansha ( client who used Naikan attack ) captives compared to those who are non following the Naikan attack.Evidence could besides be seen on the Studies on the general effectivity of the techniques are thin, those reported in Dr. Reynolds ‘s book, ”Naikan Psychotherapy, ” published by the University of Chicago Press, shows that Naikan is peculiarly helpful for alkies and for felons.

Harmonizing to one survey, 80 per centum of alkies who went through the Naikan plan were recovered or showed great betterments. Another survey found that in several prisons where Naikan has been used, captives who went through the plan had impressive decreases in recidivism.Therefore, naikan with its lifting popularity in the Nipponese and its effectivity, it is widely accepted by the Nipponese and people in English states, such as United States. It clearly shows that it is one of the most effectual therapies recognised in the universe.

Overview of Naikan Therapy

Naikan is a Nipponese word, which means “ inside looking ” or “ self-contemplation ” . It is a structured method of self-reflection, which helps to understand one-self, the relationships and the cardinal nature of human being.

Naikan Therapy sees many jobs as being due to self-centeredness.A Clients are expected to prosecute in drawn-out periods of self-observation, in isolation from other people.A This self-contemplation lasts for about one hebdomad in a infirmary or other monitored installation, and is continued a few hours a twenty-four hours thereafter.A The occupation of the healer is one of minimum engagement ; he or she provides sporadic counsel to the patient.

Naikan broadens our position of world. Our former position still included, but accompanied by much that had been hidden.

Naikan Contemplation

Formal methods of self-reflection by and large involve certain basic features.

First, there is the demand for clip which is set aside entirely for the intent of self-reflection. Second, usage of a infinite, sooner with some grade of isolation that limits external distraction. Third, the application of inquiries or construction, which helps to, analyze one ‘s lives with an accent on his behavior in relation to other people, animals and objects.Naikan is a method of self-reflection developed in Japan by Yoshimoto Ishin. Its construction uses a individual ‘s relationships with other as the mirror to see his behavior. Contemplation is done with respects to what we have received from others, what we have given, and what troubles we have caused.

Genuine self-reflection affects so many facets of life-the presence of gratitude, relationships with loved 1s, the grade of judgement we have about other ‘s mistakes, lifestyle picks, one ‘s religion, etc.A sincere scrutiny requires attending to what that has non been attended to. It involves the client ‘s willingness to confront his errors, failure and failing. It requires the client to admit his evildoings and actions, which have caused trouble to others. The 4th measure is to do a searching and unafraid moral stock list. This leaves small room for faulting others or kicking about how you have been treated. The capacity for self-reflection holds the key to freedom, while, at the same clip, shacking in the roots of our ain agony.As client embark on a journey of self-reflection, they will destruct false myths, conflict with ego-centered firedrakes, acquire snared in traps of pride, swim in calm pools of gratitude, and acquire stuck in the quicksand of selfishness.

Yet even as they travel, they may go cognizant that the way, and the ability, even desire, to go, are gifts themselves

How to Practice Naikan Reflection

Naikan contemplation is based on three inquiries:What have I received from __________ ?What have I given to __________ ?What troubles and troubles have I caused __________ ?These inquiries provide a foundation for reflecting on relationships with others such as parents, friends, instructors, siblings, work associates, kids, and spouses. Self-reflection can besides be done in relation to pets, and even objects in our day-to-day lives such as autos and laptops.For case, when we reflect in relation to our laptop:“ What have I received from my laptop? ”An reply could be that my laptop helped in my completion of my undertakings and assisted greatly in my surveies, provided me with amusement when I am experiencing bored.“ What have I given to my laptop? ”I have taken good attention of my laptop by maintaining it in a ace status, giving her a good cleansing every hebdomad.“ What troubles and troubles have I caused to this laptop? ”When I am experiencing frustrated, I vent my choler on her, doing abrasions and amendss to her physical visual aspect.In each instance, the individual hunt for a more realistic position of his behavior and of the discussion which has occurred in the relationship.For the first inquiry, client will analyze the relationship by looking at what he has received from that individual. It can be simple and clear descriptions of world and the other individual ‘s attitude or motive towards him, and it is because of the fact that he benefitted from this individual.

Often people take such things for granted as they hurried through the yearss. They give no attending to the “ small ” things that they received as they are being supported and spend their attending elsewhere. However, they merely realised the significance of the “ small ” things merely when they are gone. It is so that they realized how we have been supported and cared for. Hence, people may be surprised at the length or importance of such a list and a deeper sense of gratitude and grasp may be of course stimulated. Without a witting displacement of attending to the myriad ways in which the universe supports us, we risk our attending being trapped by merely jobs and obstructions, go forthing us merely to linger in enduring and self-pity.

For the 2nd inquiry, “ What have I given to the other individual? ” the other side of the equation is being looked at. For case, a pupil has many undertakings to work on during each academic semester. For each of the undertakings, he uses his laptop to assist him make research, do up PowerPoint slides. The laptop helped him to be able to finish his undertaking and even assisted him in a originative manner of showing his findings. However, he takes the attempt of the laptop for granted and unrecorded as if he was “ entitled ” to such attempt, which is what will go on if he does non reflect on the 2nd inquiry. Hence, when the laptop failed him, for illustration unable to link to internet, he would “ physically mistreat ” the laptop as the laptop do non carry through his outlook. People resent it when others do non carry through their outlooks, and live as if they deserve whatever they want.

Therefore, by contemplation on the relationship, people will get down to see the world of life. Naikan Theory teaches people to travel through life seeking to refund the debt to others instead than traveling through life with the mission of roll uping what is owed.The 3rd and concluding inquiry is the most hard of all. Peoples are largely cognizant of how others have cased incommodiousness or troubles to them.

Possibly person in forepart of you taking a long clip to do payment, or possibly the individual by chance brush against your shoulders. But frequently, people do non see the incommodiousness or troubles they had caused to others. Even if the individual does, he would happen alibis for it such as, “ it was an accident ” or “ I did n’t intend it ” , or merely disregard it as “ non such a large trade.

Types of Naikan Reflection

Mr. Yoshimoto suggested that when people reflect on themselves, they should pass at least 60 % of the clip sing how they have caused the problem. To genuinely cognize oneself or the grave by which one ego unrecorded, people must be willing to see and accept those events in which they have caused agony to others.The 3 basic types of Naikan contemplation are Daily Naikan, Naikan Reflection on a Person and Naikan Retreat.

Daily Naikan ( Nichijo Naikan )

This is the simplest method of Naikan contemplation and requires merely 20 to 30 proceedingss before bedtime. It is done through reflecting about the three basic inquiries in a quiet topographic point without any distractions.

Client besides has to compose down the reply to the three inquiries in relation to the twenty-four hours. It is indispensable to be specific instead than general.For illustration, instead than province that you received nutrient today, compose down the existent nutrient that you received and ate today. Do n’t go forth anything off your list because they seem “ fiddling ” or you receive them every twenty-four hours ; it is rather of import to notice and list merely such points.

Naikan Reflection on a Person

This is the footing of the traditional Naikan method.

The client examines his life by reflecting on his relationships with others, utilizing a period of 50 to 60 proceedingss for contemplation. For each hr of contemplation, client will analyze their relationship during a specific period. Normally, continue chronologically ; get downing with the twenty-four hours client foremost met the individual.

The clip period that client examine may be every bit small as a hebdomad or every bit much as 3 to 4 old ages, depending on how long we have known the individual.For illustration, a adult male has been married for 15 old ages and prior to marriage, dated his present married woman for three old ages. In this instance, he might foremost reflect on the dating period prior to his nuptials. Subsequently, he would analyze his matrimony in 2 to 3 twelvemonth increases until he reached the present twenty-four hours. As an on-going pattern, he might reflect on his matrimony at the terminal of each month.

He would go on to utilize 50 to 60 minute clip to reflect and use the basic Naikan inquiries to his relationship.Relationships with parents, siblings, instructors, and friends can be examined in a similar manner with three-year periods being by and large applied unless the individual has been known for merely a short clip.

Naikan Retreat ( Shuchu Naikan )

This is the nature of the Naikan retreat is where client would travel off for one hebdomad to a little bungalow in the mountains which is quiet and secluded where all a individual ‘s basic demands are provided.

Life will be unworried and there is nil for you to worry approximately in a complete silence environment and all the client demand to make is to reflect. Reflect on the narrative of the life that client wanted and compare with the world. Therapists will besides steer clients in self-contemplation and duologue by concentrating on reoccurring life subjects and replying the three basic inquiries in Naikan therapy. The aim of the therapy is for the client to understand how he has lived, how he will so populate.


Singapore is a multi-racial and multi cultural state made up of chiefly Chinese, Malays, and Indians. Out of 100 Singaporeans, there would be 75 Chinese, 14 Malay and 9 Indians. As it is made up of Asian of different cultural and cultural groups, Singapore has a diversified civilization.

Singapore is a high-context civilization in which most Singaporeans speak with a concealed significance behind their words. They have internal venue of control, which they think that results are due chiefly due to their ain behaviors and actions. They have much nonverbal and are normally reserved and shy. They find that procedure is more of import than merchandise as clip is unfastened and flexible. They have strong sense and strong people bonds association of household and believe that relationship is more of import than undertaking.


Our group will look into Singapore ‘s civilization utilizing Hofstede ‘s dimensions and Trompenaars ‘ dimensions. For Hofstede ‘s dimension, we will be concentrating on power distance, Bolshevism versus individuality, maleness versus muliebrity and Trompenaars ‘ dimension, we will be concentrating on universalism versus particularism, impersonal versus emotional, consecutive versus synchronic, internal versus external control.

Power distance ( High )

Power distance is the inequality among people, which the population of a state considers as normal.

Singaporeans strong value hierarchal relationships in society. They treat a particular group of people such as honoured invitees, seniors, parents, instructors, foremans and leaders with high regard and niceness.


Bolshevism is that persons make up societal units and can merely be understood in the context of these units and every bit related to peculiar others.

Individualism as a cultural syndrome suggests that the person is the basic unit of society and that societies continue to be if they facilitate attainment of personal ends.In Singapore, the household is the nucleus of society. Singaporeans are Bolshevism and they place household as the most of import precedence in life. Harmonizing to the Hofstede ‘s study, Singapore is ranked low in individuality ( 39th out of 41 states ) . They are socialisd to be dependent on the group, to do determinations that benefit the group, and to do picks for, and in support of, the group. Children are taught to help and continue the honor of the group, whether that group is the household, the school, the vicinity, or the state.

The individual who places his or her ain needs in front of the demands of the group are considered amoral, about a misfit, or even a societal pervert.


Maleness refers to the extent, which a civilization is contributing to dominance, assertiveness and acquisition of things. Femininity refers to the civilization to which is more contributing to people, feelings and the quality of life.In societal behavior, Singaporeans tend to be modest. Modesty requires them to be antipathetic to self – averment and to show humbleness at a compliment. By being modest, the Singaporeans appear to miss assertiveness.

They are really careful non to be seen as braggers and they are non to do promises they are non perfectly certain they can carry through. This explains the ground why Singapore is low in maleness and high in muliebrity.


Universalism is the belief that thoughts and patterns can be applied everyplace in the universe without alteration. Particularism is the belief that fortunes order how thoughts and patterns should be applied and some things can non be done the same manner everyplace.Singapore is a particularism civilization. Singaporeans view relationship more significantly than regulations and ordinances. Alternatively of following regulations, they tend to concentrate on relationships and working things out to accommodate those people involved.


Impersonal civilization is a civilization in which emotions are held in cheque. Emotional civilization is a civilization in which emotions are expressed openly and of course.Singapore has a impersonal civilization in which Singaporeans do non show themselves openly by smiling, doing conversation aloud, recognizing each other with enthusiasm or demo their true feelings.


Peoples who have a consecutive position of clip do one thing at a clip, maintain assignments purely, follow programs to the missive. Peoples who have a synchronous position of clip do more than one thing at a clip, assignments are approximative.Singaporeans, like most Asians have a synchronous position of clip.

They tend to multi-task alternatively of making one thing at a clip.

Internal Control

Peoples who believe in internal control think that they can command what happens to them. Peoples who believe in external control allow things to take their natural class and life in harmoniousness with nature.Singaporeans believe in internal control.

They believe that their ain behaviors and actions are the chief ground for something to go on. Thingss are control by oneself alternatively of by fortune or opportunity.


As Singapore has a collectivized civilization, they are dependent on the group they are in to do determinations. Since household is the nucleus of the society, household will do the most influence to a individual.

A therapy that focuses on household and edifice of trust and relationship is preferred.Based on the research of the civilization of Singapore, the group feels that CBT would be more suited for Singaporeans every bit compared to Naikan Therapy.

Naikan Therapy

Daily Naikan therapy requires a individual to make contemplation for 20 to 30 proceedingss every dark before bedtime. With Singapore being a synchronous civilization, Singaporeans might be given to be used to disbursement clip making more than one thing at a clip. In instances whereby clients multi-tasked while while the making the contemplation, it defeats the intent of the therapy they are undergoing.Despite Singapore being a high-context civilization where Singaporeans happen procedure more of import than merchandise, it is non suited for Singaporeans to travel through the Naikan Retreat as they would instead take to pass more clip with their households alternatively of traveling off for a hebdomad to a little bungalow in the mountains which is quiet and secluded.

Besides, they would non desire to be under proctor in a infirmary for a hebdomad alternatively of being with their households since they place household as the most of import precedence in life.Naikan Therapy was developed in Japan, based chiefly on the type of civilization that Japan has every bit good. Singapore ‘s civilization is similar in footings of being leftist ; they prefer constructing trust and relationship between people.

Naikan Therapy would suit into this facet as it helps clients to look into their relationship with another individual.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

CBT is based on psychodynamic and non-directive theoretical account where it is conducted in a friendly environment where there are a batch of communicating between the healer and the client which helps in set uping a relationship. Since Singapore being a high-context civilization deems relationship as of import, Singaporeans would happen it more acceptable.In add-on, CBT can be carried out over a tea session, where healer plays a facilitator function in steering the client. They do non supply solutions to the client, alternatively they provide counsel to client towards a solution.

Solutions that the client comes up with will be more accepting to them as compared to solutions given by the healer. This is particularly more pleasing as Singaporeans believe in internal control where they felt that things happened due to their ain behaviors and actions. By happening their ain solutions, they will recognize the resolution of their jobs to be by themselves alternatively of by any external factors.With Singapore being a collectivized civilization, it would be a greater advantage when a client ‘s household is allowed and encouraged to sit in one or more Sessionss.

In this instance, the client will experience more comfy with his or her household about and he or she will experience supported and motivated. Therefore, Singaporeans would happen CBT a more pleasant therapy.Last, Singapore has a high context civilization where people think that results are chiefly due to behaviors and actions, they will be interested in happening out how their behavior affects the fortunes. Hence, therapy with a psychodynamic or non-directive theoretical account is more preferable that is, CBT would be more preferable.


From the consequences mentioned above, it can be seen that CBT would suit the civilization of Singapore better than Naikan therapy.

Even though Singapore may be a Asiatic state, it has besides received many western influence, peculiarly when it was originally a settlement of Britain. On top of that, Singapore is strategically located that it has both Aisan and Western states as neighbor. Hence, it is non surprising that CBT fits the civilization more than Naikan therapy.

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