Developed countries (US. Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, countries of Europe): include 20% of the world’s population (1. 2 billion people) have about 85% of the world’s wealth and income use about 88% of the world’s natural resources generate about 75% of the world’s pollution and waste V. Developing countries (in Africa, Asia, Latin America): a. Include 80% of the world’s population (4. 9 billion people) have only about 15% of the world’s wealth and income c. Use only of the world’s natural resources VI. The Wealth Gap: 20% (1. Billion) of the world’s 6. 1 billion people have a high per capita income. 25% (1. Billion) have a moderate per capita income. 30% (1. 8 billion) have a low per capita income of around $2-3 per day 25% (1. 5 billion) have a very low per capita income of no more than $1 per day VI’. Each year, at least 10 million of the desperately poor die prematurely of: malnutrition increased susceptibility to infectious diseases because of their weakened condition from malnutrition infectious diseases from drinking contaminated water VIII.
Globalization is one of the major trends since 1950 and especially since 1970. A few indicator of globalization are: Between 1 950 and 2000, the global economy grew from $6. Trillion to $42 trillion. Between 1 970 and 2000, the number of transnational corporations operating in three or more countries grew from 7,000 to an estimated 53,600 Between 1 950 and 2000, the number of passengers-kilometers flown internationally grew form 28 million to 2. 6 trillion, and the amount of international air freight increased 1 35-fold.
There are three types Of material resources we get from the environment: perpetual direct solar energy winds tides flowing water renewable forests grasslands wild animals fresh water fresh air fertile soil nonrenewable fossil fuels italic minerals (iron, copper, aluminum) nonmetallic minerals (clay, sand, phosphates) II. When a resource becomes economically depleted, we can substitute wait millions of years for more to be produced.
Pollutions can enter the environment: naturally volcanic eruptions through human (anthropogenic) activities: from burning coal l. Pollutants come from two different sources: point sources smokestack of a coal-burning power plant drainpipe of a factory exhaust pipe of an automobile mopping sources runoff of fertilizers and pesticides into streams and lakes pesticides sprayed into the air or blown by the wind into the atmosphere .
On the other hand, environmentalists and many leading scientists believe we are: disrupting the earth’s life support system for us and other species and doing so at an accelerated rate II. Two major opposing environmental worldviews (environmental ethics) are: planetary management worldview We are the planet’s most important species, and we are apart from and in charge of the rest of nature. The earth has an unlimited supply of resources for use by us through science and technology. Economic growth increases human well-being, and the potential for economic growth is essentially limitless.
Our success depends on how well we understand, control, and manage the earth’s life-support systems for our own benefit. Environmental wisdom worldview We are part of nature and nature does not exists for us. The earth’s resources are limited, should not be wasted, and should be used efficiently and sustainable for us and other species. Some forms of tech oenology and economic growth are environmentally beneficial and should be encouraged, but dome are environmentally harmful and should be discouraged.
Our success depends on learning how the earth sustains itself and adapts to ever-changing environmental conditions and integrating such scientific lessons from nature (environmental wisdom) into the ways we think and act. IV. Skeptics about the use of technology call for us to use our economic and political systems: to encourage environmentally beneficial forms of technology and economic growth to discourage environmentally harmful forms of technology and economic