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Congregational research is non precisely a new paradigm in research. It is a paradigm that has been steadily turning in springs and bounds since the 70s and late and is easy going cardinal in spiritual and theological surveies to twenty-four hours. In recent old ages a batch surveies have shown that folds play a polar function in determining the single attitudes and the social values. Whilst the function of the folds in the society is incontestable, the procedure or the mode in which this takes topographic point depends on the societal, political environment of the fold. Each fold is alone and this uniqueness warrants a critical and disciplined survey of the fold ‘s life within and without.

My research will encompass the congregational position. I intend to analyze a fold belonging to Bread of Life Church International, a Pentecostal mega-church in Zambia. The survey is non on the Bread of Life as a church but on the Lusaka fold of the church. My purpose is to analyze corruptness in Zambia and how the fold shapes the single attitudes and reaction to corruptness and how corruptness in the society has affected the fold ‘s programmes, policies and instructions. The manner the fold ‘s battle with a corrupt environment and the person ‘s perceptual experience of that procedure is of import in the survey.

What is a Congregational Study?

The fold and its relevancy:

There is a difference between a denomination and a fold. Harmonizing to Warner “ the denomination is an organisation for the promotion of spiritual committednesss, whereas the fold is a community for the nurturance of those committednesss ” ( Warner 1994: 59 ) . A denomination creates folds. It trains, certifies, subjects, raisings, and pays the curates or the clergy and specify what is philosophy or ‘heresy ‘ . In other words, the denomination provides leading and fiscal support to the fold ( Warner 1994: 59 ) . The relationship between the denomination and the fold is like the relationship between female parent and kid. It gives life to the fold. Warner says that the fold is the entry point to the denomination. The procedures of enlisting and induction ( that is baptism, catechism, conformation, married, and buried ) take topographic point at this degree ( Warner 1994: 59 ) .

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Denominations and folds have some elements in common like ( a ) stableness and institutionalisation, ( B ) consecration and dedication, and ( degree Celsius ) extended engagement ( Warner 1994: 60 ) . However, the chief difference between denominations and folds:

is that the former are staffed by spiritual professionals – those who earn their life in the field of faith – and the latter are constituted by spiritual amateurs who spend their clip, and some of their money, in the name of faith ( Warner 1994: 61 ) .

The definition of fold I would wish to follow is the one given by James Hopewell. Harmonizing to him “ A fold is a group that possesses a particular name and recognized members who assemble to regularly observe a more universally adept worship but who communicate with each other sufficiently to develop intrinsic forms of behavior, mentality, and narrative ” ( Hopewell 1987: 12-13 [ accent original ] ) . James Hopewell ‘s definition is of import in that it underlines the thought that a fold is a group where single forms of behavior and mentality are developed. It shapes the person ‘s universe position and provides theoretical accounts for battle with the outside universe. The thought that a fold is a group where rank is regular and consistent points to the fact that it provides non merely security and support to the single but gives an single hope in face of challenges.[ 1 ]

Diagram: Denomination and Congregation

Denomination Congregation

certifies ; trains ; disciplines members ; pays the clergy ; provides leading & A ; fiscal support ; defines doctrine & amp ; mission divinity

recruits ; novices ; organize worship ; spiritual direction ; community service ; stewardship & A ; family

Hopewell ‘s definition underlines the importance and the value of concentrating on the fold instead than on the denomination. As I have indicated above, my research is non focused on the denominational degree but on the congregational degree. I concur with Jackson Carroll when he says that folds are “ vehicles for the cognition and service of God and therefore of the jussive mood for understanding them in their present being and their possibilities for going ” ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 7 ) . Congregations focal point on the person and they provide a platform for battle with God and the society. Congregations give infinite for the fulfillment of the demand for association and togetherness. They invite persons to encompass association and non isolation, harmoniousness and non chaos and disharmony ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 7 ) . Again, folds function as vehicles of traditions about religion and values that build community solidarity and continuity ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 7 ) .

One of the sociological maps of folds is that they socialise the new and the immature in the community, provides support for those in demand and provides rites of transition that are of import in the development non merely of the person but besides the community “ ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 7 ) . Congregation do non be for the continuance of the community values and traditions. In other words, folds do non ever maintain the position quo. There are times where the folds provide the cheques and balances for the community by disputing the community values and traditions so as to reform and transform the community establishments ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 7 ) . In the same light Nancy Ammerman argues that folds are

an sphere of power for people otherwise powerless, a people where schemes of endurance can be created and enacted, a topographic point where a narrative of sacred history ever calls for the myths off a ruling secular society into inquiry ( Ammerman 1993 )

In Ammerman ‘s position a fold is a powerful sphere of societal action. It is a discourse where narratives, supplications and words of advice and encouragement play an of import portion. The society sometimes is characterised by ‘visible ‘ paradigm and an ‘invisible ‘ paradigm. The seeable paradigm attempts to rule and except the other. Congregations provide the unseeable but powerful paradigm, an option to a civilization of exclusion, domination and subjugation ( Ammerman 1993 ) . Carroll summaries the importance of the fold by indicating out that “ folds have significance non merely for the persons who belong to them but besides for the society beyond their rank ” ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 8 ) .

My research will, among other things, analyze how the job of corruptness in Zambia dominates Lusaka BLCI ‘s programmes and discourse, rites, divinities and spiritualties and whether these have an consequence on the members ‘ perceptual experience, attitude and reaction to pervert behavior within and without the fold. Does the Lusaka Congregation map as an sphere for societal and moral alteration? The importance of folds in covering with corruptness in the Zambian society can non be overlooked.

Congregational surveies and relevancy:

Brynolf Lyon defines congregational surveies as “ the survey of the life of the local fold ” ( Lyon 2000: 257 ) . Harmonizing to Lyon congregational survey allows one to research how the fold works and worships. Congregational survey is more that a insouciant assemblage and testing of information about the life of a fold ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 8 ) . In existent fact, congregational survey interruptions that routine or natural assemblage of information ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 8 ) . Congregational survey focuses on the external and internal turning points in the life of the fold. These turning points include among other things the demand for new ministries, new pastoral challenges, successes and failures of pastoral programmes etc. ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 8 ) , “ In this manner congregational survey is a disciplined and critical expression at the fold ‘s life and ministry ” ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 8 ) .

Congregational survey is disciplined and comprehensive in that it analyses the congregational constructions, programs and activities and how these are related to the demands, whether existent or perceived, of the members or leaders for the fold. It besides evaluates their effectivity in position of the fold ‘s mission and ministry for insiders and foreigners ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 8 ) . Harmonizing to Ammerman a disciplined survey

Examines the constructions or forms that are hidden under multiple issues.

Systematically reviews the fold ‘s yesteryear successes and failures, foregrounding its values, manners and behavior.

Prepares to uncover the dark side of the fold.

Has a public character ( Ammerman et. Al. 1998: 10 ) .

The Lusaka BLCI Congregation is one of the most organized Pentecostal folds in Zambia. It is divided into units and its unit has got its ain activities under the supervising of curates. Weekly telecasting programmes, picture and audio Cadmium ‘s, booklets are some of the instruments that are used to foster the fold ‘s ministry. On this note it will be of import to look into the part ( positive or negative ) of these activities to the members ‘ perceptual experience and reaction to corruptness around them.

Why is congregational survey of import in the survey of spiritual folds? Harmonizing to Carroll et. Al. congregational survey “ confabulate a balance and sense of proportion frequently absent from the self-generated self-descriptions of folds ” ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 8 [ accent original ] ) . Congregational survey high spots non merely the dominant voices but the less-dominant voices in the fold and how both influence determination devising procedures within the folds. Current surveies on spiritual groups focus on the voices of the influential members like curates and leaders whilst side run alonging the fringy voices ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 8 ) . A survey of the whole BLCI in Zambia or of different Pentecostal churches would decidedly supply a big position of Pentecostal battle with corruptness but would non supply ‘balance and sense of proportion ‘ in that it would disregard the marginalised voices and the unseeable civilization with the folds.

Again, congregational survey uncovers ‘structures or forms ‘ in the jobs confronting a fold. It tries to detect a nexus or a form between these jobs. Carroll et. Al. suggested that this is of import in that “ placing a form that links a series of jobs does non automatically propose a manner of work outing the jobs… may assist it to do determinations consistent with its proved strengths and existent precedences ” ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 8 ) . Further, congregational survey reveals the dark side of the fold, a side that it tries to conceal from itself and from foreigners ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 9 ) . The other point is that congregational surveies are non based on private or personal opinions. As Carroll et. Al. wrote “ their methods and the cogency of their decisions are available for public examination ” ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 9 ) . Congregational surveies give importance to ‘congregational self-understanding ‘ and ‘congregational engagement ‘ in the survey ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 9 ) .

Congregational surveies ‘view the fold non as jobs to be solved but as a manner of life that needs transmutation. As Lyon said congregational surveies is characterised by “ an appreciative attitude toward congregational life ” ( Lyon 2000: 259 ) . It views the fold as the best avenue to show some of our strong beliefs. This attitude is a large displacement from the earlier position of rejecting and disregarding congregational life that has characterised spiritual surveies of late. Congregational life has been looked upon as a manner to be critiqued and non appreciated. This has changed due to the alterations taking topographic point within the mainline churches, the seeable and vocal presence of Pentecostal, evangelical churches and new spiritual motions and the consequence of release doctrines and divinities within folds ( Lyon 2000: 259-260 ) .

Congregational life looks at folds as complex communities that should be studied the same manner civilizations are studied ( Lyon 2000: 260 ) . A batch of surveies have stressed a unidimensional position of congregational life when they looked at folds as contemplations of the ‘Church ‘ . Congregational surveies provide a complex hermeneutical manner of understanding folds. The other component that characterises congregational surveies today is the employment of several disciplinary methodological analysiss that enriches the whole sphere of congregational surveies. This is necessitated by the complexness of congregational themselves. Congregational surveies provide an interdisciplinary and non a multidisciplinary manner of looking at folds, a manner that looks at congregational life from a assortment of angles ( Lyon 2000: 261 ) .

Congregational Perspective and Practical Theology:

My country of research is practical divinity and the research paradigm that I have adopted is congregational position. In my position the congregational attack is one of the positions within practical divinity. It is a new position that has added deepness into practical divinity. First, congregational surveies enables the research worker to see the kineticss of attention within the fold and how that attention shaped the fold and is shaped by societal kineticss ( Lyon 2000: 263 ) . How does the fold trade with ( Dis ) administration of the household, societal jobs within the community, HIV/AIDS, unemployment, attention for the hapless and marginalised etc. this is of import for practical divinity is that it

can break come to understand how the whole manner of life of a community ( its typical civilization ) expresses its attention – for good and for sick – and the ways that care expresses and fails to show the community ‘s apprehensions of the demands of populating gratefully in relation to God and neighbors ( Lyon 2000: 263 ) .

Second, congregational surveies has a ‘communal venue ‘ of divinity ( Lyon 2000: 264 ) an component that is besides identified with practical divinity. Over the old ages divinity has been reduced to being the concerns of bookmans and non communities. Congregational surveies help the research worker to widen the communal venue of divinity to the fold itself. In this manner divinity is non merely a sphere of ‘solitary ‘ theologists in colleges and universities but is at the Centre of congregational life. This is of import for practical divinity in that, one begins to understand how folds non joint their articles of religion but how they try to link their faith committedness to the challenges confronting the fold and its members in the society ( Lyon 2000: 265 ) . In this manner the fold is the topographic point where practical divinity is ‘practiced ‘ . Congregations are non consumers of divinity but spouses and manufacturers of divinity.

Typology and Features of Congregational Surveies:

Typologies in Congregational Surveies:

Congregational surveies are non a freshness in the spiritual and theological surveies. It is merely a new accent, a displacement. Until the 1970 ‘s when sociological surveies began to take involvement in the manner spiritual groups/organizations and denominations affect and are affect the society, congregational surveies have non been taken earnestly in spiritual and theological research. Sociological surveies in spiritual issues have generated a batch of involvement in the manner spiritual folds engage with social issues and how frailty versa.

Hopewell divided congregational surveies into four types: contextual, mechanistic, organic and cultural ( Hopewell 1987: 21 ) .[ 2 ]This is the typology that is followed, with minor accommodations, by any congregational research workers today. Harmonizing to Hopewell, the contextual attack does non look at the fold as an island but as a unit with a certain environment. Hopewell argues that the texture, the form or quality of the fold reflects the nature of the texture of the society as a whole ( Hopewell 1987: 19 ) . The get downing point of contextual surveies on folds is non “ the church and the job of “ what is the true church? ” ” but the “ probe in the universe, particularly where efforts are being made to react to the docket of the universe? ” ( WCC 1967 in Hopewell 1987: 21 ) . This accent on the context raises a batch of issue s that have to make with the manner the fold relates to its environment ( Hopewell 1987: 22 ) .

Unlike contextual surveies, mechanistic surveies do non put accent on the environment but on the internal operations of the fold ( Hopewell 1987: 23 ) . This attack views the folds non as a whole but the amount of parts. It seeks to understand these parts operate and whether they will be able to carry through the purposes of the fold and withstand force per unit area from the environment ( Hopewell 1987: 20 ) . The fold is a machine and with this position the attack seeks to increase the effectivity of the fold ‘s programmes ( Hopewell 1987: 25-26 ) .

A fold is sometimes treated as a life being. This attack does non see the fold as the amount of parts but as a unit. In this manner the fold is understood as a community that is able to develop, to alter ( Hopewell 1987: 27 ) . This organic attack views the fold as life being that is capable of maturating in phases. It besides stresses on the facets of verve and engagement in the sense that the relationship and interaction between members and their engagement takes centre phase ( Hopewell 1987: 27-28 ) . The symbolic attack does non see the fold as a texture, machine or being but as a discourse “ an exchange of symbols that express the positions, values, and motives of the parish ” ( Hopewell 1987: 28 ) . The focal point of this attack is on the individuality of the fold ( Hopewell 1987: 28-29 ) . “ Identity mirrors the “ we ” of a church that persists through whatever alterations environment or revised plan or interpersonal growing that may consequence in its thick ” ( Hopewell 1987: 29 ) . Below is a tabular matter of Hopewell ‘s typology of congregational surveies.

Approach to Congregation

Percept of Congregation

Congregational Focus


fold as texture

explore the context


fold as machine

explore effectivity of programmes


fold as being

explore communal development


fold as discourse

explore fold ‘s individuality

In the book Congregational Studies in the UK ( 2004 ) , Linda Woodhead et. Al. divided congregational surveies into two classs: extrinsic and intrinsic, each with sub-categories ( Woodhead, et. Al. 2004: 1-2 ) . Extrinsic congregational surveies have a much broader concern or docket and the intrinsic surveies dwell on the folds “ for their ain interest or for the interest of understanding them ” ( Woodhead, et. Al. 2004: 2 ) . My research is intrinsic in the sense that it examines the function of a peculiar fold in the battle of corruptness. It seeks to put this survey within a wider context.

Diagram: Extrinsic and Intrinsic Surveies

Extrinsic Intrinsic

Communitarian Self-contained

Church-growth Typologizing

Organizational Contextualizing

Church-health Multi-focused


Beginning: Woodhead, et. Al. ( 2004: 2 ) .

It is impossible to include all the Hopewell typologies or the extrinsic and intrinsic dimensions in one survey. My research will tilt to a great extent towards the contextual and symbolic dimensions though other dimensions will be explored in so far as they are related to these. Contextual attack will be of import in my survey because ( a ) 1 has to locate the job of corruptness within a context. This means analyzing the ‘culture of corruptness ‘ in the community in which the fold is found, ( B ) it has an oecumenic component in it. Psychologist would state that individuality of the ego can be understood by looking at the individuality of the other. Peoples sometimes defined themselves in footings of what they are non. Examining, loosely, the other ecclesiastical attacks to the same job can be another manner of detecting the individuality and civilization of the fold standby. The symbolic attack is, my position, is an of import assistance to the contextual dimension. There is a nexus between the two. The contextual attack explores the values and civilizations of the fold as contemplation, mirror of the values and civilizations of the community environing. The symbolic attack attempts to bring out and understand the symbols that shape these congregational values and civilizations. What links the two are the congregational values and civilizations.

Features of Congregational Surveies:

The Handbook of Congregational Studies ( 1986 ) list four characteristics of congregational surveies: programme, procedure, societal context and individuality ” ( Carroll et. Al. 1986 ) . Analyzing Congregations: A New Handbook ( 1998 ) lists the characteristics as follows: ecology, civilization, resource and procedure ( Ammerman et. Al. 1998 ) . These are presented as “ frames ” or “ lenses ” for analyzing folds. In this paper I shall analyze the list presented in the 1998 enchiridion.

The Ecological Frame: The Handbook uses the word ‘social context ‘ and Analyzing Congregations employs the word ‘ecology ‘ . Ecology and societal context refers “ to the scene, local and planetary, in which a fold finds itself and to which it responds ” ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 12 ) . The ecological or contextual analysis includes people – their civilization and features, establishments and societal groups, and the assorted societal, political, and economic forces operative in the scene ” ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 12 ; Ammerman et. Al. 1998: 14 ) . This frame views the fold as one of the beings that make up the societal and spiritual universe ( Ammerman et. Al. 1998: 14 ) . The fold is an open-system in the sense that there is internal and external interaction. Underliing this position is the statement that the fold is both a sacred and societal establishment and is invariably altering and accommodating to new worlds ( Hendriks 2004: 70 ) . Its divinity, moralss, worship and the manner it understands its mission is shaped by its societal context ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 48 ) .

The fold and the environment interact on several degrees. The first degree is the demographic degree that is the Numberss of the people, their ethnicity, race, ages etc. Populations can hold effects drastic alterations one the local folds. The 2nd bed is the civilization bed here understood as the values and patterns that are shared by the members of the fold and others outside the group. “ In Africa civilization is of import in understanding the people and communities. aˆ¦ Behaviour, and understanding that behavior, is related to what your civilization determines ” ( Hendriks 2004: 90 ) . The 3rd degree is the administration degree intending the functions and relationship that give construction to the interaction between the fold and the community ( Eisland & A ; Warner 1998: 42 ) . Jurgens Hendriks says that the fold is influenced by the environment on three degrees: macro degree, by the planetary society ; meso degree, by other establishments in the community and micro degree, by other people and events in the community ( Hendriks 2004: 76-77 ) .

Hendriks farther argues that contextual analysis is necessary when a fold is ‘off-track ‘ , if it has lost sight of its mission and is unmindful to the jobs and challenges confronting the universe around it ( Hendriks 2004: 69 ) . In Africa, a batch of communities are ravaged by poorness, HIV/AIDS, corruptness etc and folds are considered as an of import spouse in get the better ofing these challenges. If the fold is no longer able to recognize the hurting and agony of its neighbor, this is religious decease. Contextual analysis helps the fold to be refocused and to do an scrutiny of itself in the visible radiation of its mission and ministry.

Harmonizing to Ammerman that are three theories that can be used to explicate how folds respond to their environment ( Ammerman 1997: 45 ) . The first is called the “ endurance of the fittest ” or the population ecology theory. This theory investigates the population of a fold and non how the fold alterations, how and why a given organizational type succeeds ( Ammerman 1997: 45-46 ) . The 2nd theory is the “ endurance of the similar ” ( Ammerman 1997: 46 ) . This theory investigates what Ammerman calls the “ liabilities of newness ” , that is, why folds are likely to decease in their first twelvemonth of being. The 3rd theory is the “ endurance of the understanding ” ( Ammerman 1997: 46 ) . This theory surveies how congregational leaders adapt to alter and it focuses on the mobilization of power in the fold, effectual usage of influence and the edifice of alliances.

The Cultural Frame: Ammerman defines civilization as “ physical artefacts, forms of activity, and the linguistic communication and narrative that embellish those objects and activities with significance ” ( Ammerman 1997: 47 ) . Denham Grierson said that a fold ‘s civilization includes the fold ‘s history, hero narratives, artefacts of significance, symbols, rites and gestures, myths of fate, and images of hope ( Grierson 1984 in Ammerman 1997: 54 ) . This means that look intoing a fold ‘s civilization is looking at how its ways are “ shaped by wonts and informal forms of friendly relationship ” ( Ammerman 1997: 54 ) . As Hopewell observed, “ a group of people can non regularly gather for what they feel to be spiritual intents without developing a complex web of signals and symbols and convention-in short, a subculture-that additions its ain logic and so maps in a manner perculiar to that group ” ( Hopewell 1987: 5 ) .

The cultural frame is what is referred to as individuality in the 1986 book. Through the cultural frame the ways which the fold has developed, cultivated or adopted in relation to its mission and ministry are highlighted. This civilization ( s ) are besides linked or borrowed from the larger civilization from which the fold derives its individuality ( Ammerman et. Al. 1998: 15 ) . “ By individuality, we mean that relentless set of beliefs, values, forms, symbols, narratives and manner that make a fold distinctively itself ” ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 15 ) . “ The individuality of a fold is the perceptual experience of its civilization by either an perceiver or the fold itself ” ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 22 ) . Every fold has a set of beliefs about itself that defines who they are and this constitutes they are individuality.

In many African urban Centres there is a strong influence of “ socio-economic position ” ( SES ) . The SES includes factors like wealth, business, instruction, prestigiousness, political power etc and they determine how people relate to each other. It is easy to detect the influence of SES in the stratification of the fold into the rich persons and poor persons ( Hendriks 2004: 91 ) . Analyzing civilization and individuality is of import in that ( a ) it helps the research worker to understand the congregational personality and civilization. It is an exegesis of the fold and the community, ( B ) it allows the research worker to understand how the fold manages alterations ad passage, alterations brought about by demographic alterations for case and ( degree Celsius ) it may assist the research worker to understand how the fold confronts hard theological and pastoral issues ( Hendriks 2004: 106 ) .

The Resource Frame: Every fold has got a mission that needs resources or ‘capital ‘ to carry through. Capital can be ‘hard ‘ or ‘soft ‘ . Hard capital may include the members themselves, fundss, substructure, history, relationship to the community, its repute and spiritualty ( Ammerman et. Al. 1998: 15 ) . Soft capital refers to the experience of the community together, strength of the fold ‘s religion and the committedness of the fold ( Ammerman et. Al. 1998: 15 ) . Harmonizing to William McKinney ( 1998 ) apart from capital resources, there is commitment resources “ worship attending and member giving ” , fiscal committedness, physical and infinite resources ( McKinney 1998: 135-152 ) . In every fold committedness seems to be a really critical resource that is more of import than fiscal, stuff and human resources. The endurance of the fold hinges on the ability of the fold to offer a alone experience. As Ammerman says:

Most critical seems to be the extent to which the fold is able to offer its members a strong sense of individuality and engagement that is comparatively distinguishable from anything available to them elsewhere… Peoples are more committed to an organisation when they have meaningful work to make, when they feel a sense of stand foring a moral good that allows them to exceed simply personal involvement ( Ammerman 1997: 50-51 ) .

The Procedure Frame: Procedure is the scrutiny of how and non why the values and events interact. It links the individuality, values, and committednesss with specific programmes and events that are supported by the people ( Carroll et. Al. 1986: 81 ) . Therefore, a procedure research pays attending to the energy that flows through the fold conveying its life and modeling its morale ( Ammerman et. Al. 1998: 15 ) . This frame “ inquire how leading is exercised and shared, how determinations are made, how communicating occurs and struggles are managed and jobs solved ” ( Ammerman et. Al. 1998: 15 ) . Carl Dudley ( 1998 ) differentiates between formal and informal procedures. Formal procedure refers to the societal interaction that follow guidelines, patterns, policies, constructions that are considered as official or that are accepted by the generalization of the members of the fold. These besides can be written or unwritten ( Dudley 1998: 107 ) . When the societal interaction does non follow these guidelines and policies this is called informal procedure ( Dudley 1998: 107 ) .

Becker ‘s Congregational Model of Local Culture

In her book Congregations in Conflict ( 1999 ) Penny Becker proposes another attack in the survey of congregational life. Harmonizing to Becker the current comparative attack, popularised by Ammerman and others, emphasises the structural and cultural factors of congregational life ( Becker 1999: 172 ) . Becker suggested that folds are vivacious societal histrions that need to be understood non merely in footings of their relationship to denominations but besides in their ain right ( Monahan 2000: 394 ) . In her ain words, the primary statement in the book is that, “ local spiritual civilizations are non wholly idiosyncratic, but that they come in forms shaped by the larger institutional environment that limits their scope of fluctuation ” ( Becker 1999: 7 ) . Apart from the comparative attack, she argues, the institutional attack helps us to understand different institutional manners of congregational life ( Becker 1999: 172 ) . It is the most appropriate attack to analyzing the civilization of single groups and administrations ( Becker 1999: 8 ) . This attack “ helps us to further understand the institutional signifiers that mediate the relationship between larger cultural formations and structural factors, and single penchants, beliefs, and determination devising in organisations and groups ” ( Becker 1999: 173 ) .

This attack lead Becker to detect four theoretical accounts or forms of local spiritual civilizations, viz. , house worship, household, community, and leader theoretical accounts ( Becker 1999: 7 ) . These theoretical accounts help us to understand the relationship between local civilization and struggle. Harmonizing to Becker, each of these theoretical accounts can be understood as “ packages of nucleus undertakings and legitimate ways of making things ” ( Becker 1999: 7 ) and they represent a distinguishable spiritual civilization that is shaped by local apprehensions of individuality and mission.

In the house of worship theoretical account, the members concentrate on supplying worship, spiritual instruction, and rites, e.g. nuptialss and funerals ( Becker 1999: 13 ) . The ends of the house of worship folds are to supply an confidant and uplifting worship experience and to develop members in the denominational heritage, philosophy and rites ( Becker 1999: 13 ) . These types of folds do non demand a batch of trueness and clip from the members and separate spiritual and private lives of the members ( Becker 1999: 13 ) .

In the household theoretical account, the fold focal point on close-knit and supportive relationships ( Becker 1999: 13 ) . Members of these folds know and care for one another deeply. In the community theoretical account, folds focus on the same undertakings as the household theoretical account, but place the highest accent on calculating out how to construe and use shared values ( Becker 1999: 14 ) . Again, they emphasise on populating their values, commiting them in local congregational life. Distinguishing the community theoretical accounts from other theoretical accounts, Becker wrote, “ If a house of worship is like a spiritual shop and household folds are like patriarchates, community folds are like democracies, with more accent on formal and unfastened decision-making modus operandis that include all members ” ( Becker 1999: 14 ) .

Finally, in the leader theoretical account, folds have an activist orientation, endeavoring to use the official philosophies of their denomination or tradition to assorted societal and political issues in the larger community ( Becker 1999: 14 ) . Again, familiarity is non extremely valued and is considered as low precedence. The chief accent is to show the values that come from the official philosophies of the denomination and non from members ‘ ain reading and life experiences.

What is of import about these theoretical accounts of local civilization is that they are non merely theoretical buildings by the research worker but were drawn from the members ‘ perceptual experience about their congregational life. Becker ‘s extended interviews support this point ( Monahan 2000: 394 ) . Again, the theoretical accounts of local civilization are negotiated and enacted chiefly by laic individuals in the folds and non by the curates ( Monahan 2000: 394 ) . Last, these theoretical accounts span denominational association, theological propensities, civil order type and fold size ( Monahan 2000: 394 ) .

Table: The nucleus undertakings of the four congregational theoretical accounts

Core Task Congregational Model ________________________________________________________

House of Family Community Leader Worship _________________________________________________________

Religious Worship Worship Worship Worship reproduction Religious Religious Religious Religious instruction instruction instruction instruction

Religious Intimacy is Provide near Provide stopping point Intimacy is community possible/ family-like family-like possible/ single fond regards fond regards single pick for most/all for most/all pick members members Community of Community of values values

Religious Presence in Presence in Express members ‘ Adopt curate ‘s or witness community community values in denomination ‘s is witnessed is witnessed policies and policies and ( populate our plans values ) plans ( unrecorded our values ) Be a leader in community, denomination, or beyond ( alter our universe )

Beginning: Becker ( 1999: 15 )


The intent of the paper was to underscore the importance of congregational surveies to the research on Bread of Life Church Congregation in Lusaka. This attack will enable me to understand the centrality of BLC fold in the community ‘s battle against corruptness.

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