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1. What is a job analysis? How can you make use of the information it provides? What are the six steps in a well-conducted job analysis? Job Analysis is data an organization uses to determine what type of personnel to hire for a position and describes the duty position that job actually entails. This information can be used to determine prerequisites for hiring personnel for a job. If the job requires heavy lifting then you may want to have a minimum lifting capability of 50 Lbs or more. If the job requires knowledge of special tools and equipment then prior knowledge of these types of tools and equipment may be considered.

The six steps in a wee-conducted job analysis is: Decide how you’ll use the information, review relevant background information, select representative positions, actually analyze the job, verify the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his/her immediate supervisor, and develop a job description and job specification. 2. Do you think companies can really do without detailed job descriptions? Why or why not? I personally believe that a company must have a detailed job description in-order to remain efficient and effective.

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If employees know exactly what their job entails then that would allow them to be more effective within the business and that will make an organization more profitable if the employees know their job. A good example of this is a organized sports team. A team consists of players which are like employees, these players each have a position and each position has a detailed play for that position to perform, without the detailed plays for that position the team would surely fail because no one will no how to play in that position and the opposition would prevail every time.

Also a business needs to emphasize that the employee is not limited to the job description and encourage them to come up with new and innovative ways to perform their job. 3. What are the main things you would do to recruit and retain a more diverse workforce? The main things I would do to ensure that I recruit and retain a diverse workforce would be to create a diverse pool of candidates. I would recruit individuals from different areas to ensure that I did not recruit out of the same areas each time. I would recruit individuals from colleges with a large number of graduates coming from a diverse background like race, ethnicity, and gender.

Attend and recruit from job fairs offered by various organizations like the military and high schools. Cultivate relationships with special interest groups like Native American Society, NAACP, and Gay Rights Groups. Create a interest in my organizations career field by providing information to Junior High Students and stimulating interest before they made up their mind on what they will study in college. Develop slogans that emphasizes diversity within my organization and post these slogans on all advertisements promoting my organization, like “You are in good hands with Allstate” so we can be known for hiring diverse individuals. . List five sources of job candidates that can be used to fill a vacant job. What are the pros and cons of each? 1. Internal sources of candidates PROs-This method allows the employer to use less time and resources when filling a job vacancy. The employer already knows the employee strength and weaknesses and therefore will not have to gamble on bringing in someone totally new to the organization. CONs-It can limit the hiring of diverse group of individuals. It can create an environment where it’s viewed as who you know as opposed to what you know and this can create a negative work environment. . Employment Agencies PROs-It gives employees access to large pools of qualified candidates from broad backgrounds. It cuts down on the amount of time and resources used in recruiting. CONs-It put individuals who are only interested in collecting unemployment in the job applicant pool, these individuals can waste an employer time because they have no interest in getting hired. 3. Temp Agencies and Alternative Staffing PROs-Employers can quickly find temporary qualified candidates when permanent employees are out sick are fulfilling a military obligation.

CONs-It cost a employer more to hire a temporary worker because the Temp agency gets a cut for providing those individuals to the employer. 4. Offshoring/Outsourcing PROs-Employers can hire qualified individuals for far less money than it could for the same job in the U. S. CONs-Employer will put his/her organization faith in countries that are subject to political and military unrest causing a lot of anxiety with stateside investors and employees. 5. Executive Recruiters PROs-Employers can use these programs to fill top level positions and save tremendously on the recruiting and training process.

CONs-Recruiters are salesmen and will be more interested in selling the employer on hiring the employee than finding someone who actually wants the job. 5. Discuss some of the ethical and legal considerations in testing job candidates. When using a test to screen applicants for a job employers should ensure that the test is not causing EEO issues like adverse impact where a applicant feels like the test unfairly discriminate against a protective or non-protective group. The burden of proof lies on the employer to prove that his/her test are directly related to success or failure on the job.

Testing should never be used as a selection tool, it should be viewed as a supplement to the hiring process. 6. Discuss and give examples of at least five common interviewing mistakes. What recommendations would you give for avoiding these interviewing mistakes? 1. First Impressions-Employers must ensure that they do not come to conclusion about a candidate within the first few moments of getting to know an individual. As stated in chapter 7 as much as 85% of cases interviewers had decided to hire or not hire an applicant within the first few minutes. I was a victim to this practice once.

I interviewed a soldier to work for me and from the first impressions I was extremely impressed so I hired him and needless to say afterwards I found out that the soldier had extreme family issues that prevented him from coming to work everyday and he had a profile that prevented him from doing any physical activity which is required for working in my field which is maintenance. 2. Misunderstanding the job- The employer must know all aspects of the job he/she is trying to fill. If the employer is ill-informed about a job for which they are trying to fill then he/she may hire based on stereo types rather than actual job qualifications.

A good example of this is the owners of NFL and major sports team. Most of these owners do not have a clue of what it takes to coach a major sports team so they end up hiring coaches that are not best suited for the job and the team end up having a losing season after season that’s why so many coaches are hired and fired each year on the Professional Sports Teams. 3. Candidate-Order (Contrast) Error and pressure to Hire-This happens when employers interview a string of sub-standard applicants then interview an average applicant and gives them higher than warranted evaluations.

A good example of this is the interviewing process used by American Idol. The judges get a string of bad performers and then get a singer who is just average and they invites them to Hollywood and we end up listening to singers like Sanjaya. An interviewer should use a written scale that is easily identifies potential applicant qualifications. 4. Effect of Personal Characteristics: Attractiveness, Gender, Race-This is when an employer hires someone because of they way they look as opposed to their qualifications. I personally witnessed this happen a year ago when I got to Korea.

There were 3 individuals who were interviewed for the same job, one was very attractive and the other two were not but they were more qualified for the job by far and did not get the job and the reason I can think of was because of the way they looked. This job would have been better served had the interviewer used qualifications rather than appearance to fill that opening. 5. Interviewer Behavior-This is when an interviewer gives expression of content or discontent by either verbal or subtle body expressions like smiling or frowning as the interview process is being conducted.

It is also when a interviewer gives the applicant the answers to the questions before they get the opportunity to answer. I see this happen a lot when I sit on panels and interview soldiers for promotion to the next rank. A lot of interviewers will let the interviewee know the answer to the questions before they give them the opportunity to answer especially if that soldier belongs to his or her company. Interviewer should allow time for applicants to answer questions so they can get a true assessment of the applicant’s knowledge. Module 3 1. Explain the five-step training process?

How do you identify training needs? How do you evaluate training? a. Needs Analysis- This step is where management looks at a specific need for a specified job and makes an assessment of what type of training an employee will need to fulfill this job requirement. The management will set forth objectives that must be met by employee’s performance based off past deficiencies. b. Instructional Design-This is the training material production process. This is where the management will decide on and produce the training material needed to train employees on a specific job.

In the army we call these items Terminal Learning Objectives (TLOs) and Enabling Learning Objective (ELOs). This is what the army uses to train soldiers on various aspects of their jobs. c. Validation-This is the test drive step. The management will demonstrate the new training techniques and materials to a small selected group of people and fix all discrepancies that are noted during the presentation. This is like when a defense contractor tests a new weapons system for a selected group of politicians and generals before that weapon is fielded in the military. d. Implement-This is when the actual training of the employees takes place.

This is the step where the rubber meets the road in the training process. e. Evaluation-This is where the management will make a determination if their training methods are actually working. They will assess an employee’s performance and production before the training began and then again after the training has been complete and determine if the training was effective. 2. What is the purpose of the “new” employee orientation? Who should provide the orientation? Can you think of any topics, other than what was in the textbook, which should be included in the new employee orientation?

The employee orientation is a very important step in integrating new employees into a business. This gives the employee a scope of the company’s mission and what their job entails. The orientation typically provides the employee with basic information about the job and give the employee a since of belonging. The HR specialist or the office manager is responsible for giving the new employee orientations. I think newcomer’s orientations should include family members if married and significant others if not married. This would give the employee and his/her family a firm sense of belonging to that company.

I remember the best unit that I’ve been in since I been in the army was when my entire family was greeted and orientated to my new job, it really made a huge difference in my loyalty to that organization, and my family really understood what was required of me on a daily bases at work so that cut down on a lot of stress at home. 3. Outline the steps in the organizational change process? There are ten steps to the Organizational Change Process: I. Establish a sense of urgency-This is when you devise a plan that will give your employees or partner reasons to move forward and change the company’s direction. II.

Mobilize commitment through joint diagnosis of problems. This is my favorite form making change in a organization. When an employee or partner is giving the opportunity to identify and diagnose problems within an organization it gives them a huge sense of understanding exactly what must be done to correct the problems. III. Create a guiding coalition. This is when a company organizes a group of individuals who are responsible for implementing and overseeing the change. A good example of this is when the army upgrades its computer operating systems they hire a group of software experts to guide and implement the change in each unit.

IV. Develop a shared vision. This is when upper management implements a general statement that outlines the company’s new direction. My experience with this is when ever my unit received a new Battalion Commander or higher they would issue a new mission statement that all subordinate commanders could direct their company towards achieving his/her vision. V. Communicate the vision. This is where the management communicates the ideas of the change to employees by repetition, leading by example and keeping it simple.

This reminds me of the jargon we use in the army when training soldiers it goes “keep it simple stupid” (KISS) This is meant to imply to the trainer not to use big words and acronyms when trying to get your point across, you will be more effective if you keep your training simple so everyone will understand and stay interested. VI. Help employees to make the change. This is where a lot of employers in my opinion fail to do. When you want to make change within your organization you have to ensure that you give your employees all the means to be able to make that change.

It is not enough to come out with a mission statement and expect your employees to adapt and make changes on their own, you have to give them the tools to make that change. VII. Generate short term wins-This is giving your employees goals that can be obtained in a short term basis before the finale change can be implemented. This will motivate and provide employees with a sense of accomplishment during the slow grind of the changing process and validate the reasons for the change. VIII. Consolidate gains and produce more change.

This happens when employers combine all the short term gains while continuing to hire and promote new employees to fit within the company’s new vision. IX. Anchor the new ways of doing things in the company’s culture. This is when an employer emphasis a core group of values that must be shared by everyone within the organization. A good example of this is the army seven core values that every soldier must learn and live by. X. Monitor progress and adjust the vision as required. This is where the employer measures the progress of the new change by comparing where the company is at to quantifiable goals that were set prior to the change.

Example when a mutual fund company sets out goal to increase capital gains by 10% through aggressive and risky investments they will look at their changes and see if they are on track to obtaining their new goals, if not they will make necessary adjustment. 4. Why is it important for managers to appraise subordinates’ performance? Explain the problems to be avoided in appraising performance. It is extremely important for managers to give subordinates positive performance appraisals. If managers never gave employees positive feed back then the employees would start to feel under appreciated and their productivity may decline because of it.

Its human nature to want to be praised and know when you are doing a good job, it reinforces your commitment to the company. On the other side of the coin managers do not want to give employees too much appraisal because this could cause employees to become complacent and take the drive to become better away from them, because they feel what they are doing is enough to satisfy their job commitment. 5. There are several methods for appraising performance. Explain how you would use the (1) alternation ranking method, (2) the paired comparison method, (3) the critical incident method, and the (4) behaviorally anchored rating scale. . Alternation ranking method-I would use this method when I have at least 10 or more employees and I wanted to rate which employees exemplified a specific trait that represented the company’s mission. I would not base this method on total job performance because there are far to many factors that must be taken into consideration when judge someone’s value to the company. b. Paired comparison method. I would use this method when I was looking to make a promotion or give a bonus. This methods allows you to get a good comparison of each employee and how much each contribute to the company compared to others c.

Critical incident method. I would use this method when I wanted to give the employee a sense of behavior patterns good or bad to let them know and understand where they stand in relation to the company’s goal. This gives the employee an idea of what they are doing correctly and incorrectly and allows them to make changes accordingly. d. Behavioral anchored rating scale (BARS). I would use this type of rating scale on periodic bases such as a yearly rating. This type of rating is more detailed than the others and should provide the employee with a detailed assessment of their past and present performance.

I would use this rating to give the employee a clear set of goals to accomplish within the next rating period and let them know exactly what it will take for him/her to advance. 6. Discuss the basics of career management. Explain how career management influences employee commitment. Career Management is providing employees with career maps on how to achieve maximum development and skills in their career field. In the army each military occupational specialty comes with a career map of what it takes to get to the top of their career field.

This is very important because it provides employees with clear concise goals and parameters to achieving success within their career field. When employees know what is expected of them and what it takes to succeed than his/her level of commitment will increase towards the company and accomplishing their career goals. Career management is a valuable tool an employer can use to increase the level of commitment of their employees, after all if the employer shows that they are committed to their employees success than the employees will feel committed to accomplishing the company’s goal.

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