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Alcohol dependence and adult females: Is there a demand for gender specific intervention in recovery?Masters Level Dissertation ProposalStatisticss on alcohol addiction are clear on the differentiation based on gender. For illustration, Hilt and Nolen-Hoeskema ( 2006, p. 357 – 358 ) state us that 12.5 % of work forces and merely 6.4 % of adult females will run into the official diagnostic standards for intoxicant maltreatment at any given clip in their lives, where as 20.

1 % of work forces compared to only8.2 % for adult females will run into the official diagnostic standards for intoxicant dependance. Similar research was conducted by Grant ( 1997 as cited by Hilt & A ; Nolen-Hoeskema, 2006, p. 357 ) that the prevalence for intoxicant dependance was 18.6 % for work forces as a life-time continuance, compared to merely 8.

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4 % for adult females.Differences in hazard for intoxicant dependence between work forces and adult females are besides clear. Research workers have found a stronger familial nexus between intoxicant dependence and maltreatment in work forces than in adult females ( Hilt & A ; Nolen-Hoeskema, 2006, p. 359 ; Prescott, 2002, p.

264 ) . Literature is consistent that although the familial sensitivity is higher in work forces, environmental and other factors play a big function in the concluding development of intoxicant dependence ( Prescott, 2002, p. 265 ; Blow, Chermack. Fuller & A ; Stoltenberg, 2002, p. 845 ; Carroll, Connors, Del Boca, Mattson, Randall & A ; Roberts, 1999, p. 252 ; Wilsnack & A ; Wilsnack, 2002 ) .Biological difference are besides important in the development of intoxicant dependence in work forces compared to adult females, runing from neurological operation of the encephalon and related nervous sender differences contributed to by gender based hormonal differences ( Hanna, Urgenson, new wave der Walde & A ; Weltz, 2002, p.

145 ) to the differences in bioavailability of intoxicant doing a difference in degrees of poisoning and associated dependence and other intoxicant related diseases and comorbid provinces Hanna, Urgenson, new wave der Walde & A ; Weltz, 2002, p. 145 ) .Psychological and emotional differences between the genders is besides recognized as a hazard gender based hazard difference between degrees of intoxicant dependence in work forces and adult females ( Carroll et al. , 1999, p. 254 ; Hanna et al. , 2002, p.

152 ; Hilt & A ; Nolen-Hoeskema, 2006, p. 373, Blow, Chermack, Fuller & A ; Stoltenberg, 2000, p. 845 ) .Gender based differences in social norms for work forces and adult females related to imbibing, alcohol addiction and intoxicant dependence are besides subjects strongly researched and documented in the literature ( Hilt, Nolen-Hoeskema, 2006, p. 368 ; Hanna et al. , 2002, p.

148 ; Carroll et. al. , 1999, . p. 256 ) .

Statisticss document male intoxicant maltreatment and dependance overshadow those for adult females by about two-to-one. As a consequence, the huge bulk of research attempts, appraisal, diagnosing and finally intervention is based on what Wilke ( 1994, p. 29 ) refers to as the male-as-norm prejudice. As a consequence of gender based differences related to grounds work forces and adult females succumb to alcohol dependence, one has to oppugn whether appraisal and intervention methodological analysiss must differ every bit good to be effectual.

For illustration, adult females in same-sex intervention groups have greater chance of successful intervention intercessions than when in mixed-gender scenes ( Wilke, 1994, p. 33 ; Hanna et al. , 2002, p. 151 ) .PurposeThis thesis asks the undermentioned research inquiries:

  1. Are gender-based differences for hazard of intoxicant dependence addressed in intervention?
  2. Are gender-based differences for grounds for intoxicant dependence focused on in intervention?
  3. What makes for successful intervention intercessions for adult females?

Based on replying these research inquiries this thesis seeks to turn out the undermentioned hypothesis:1. Womans who receive specialized gender-based intervention for intoxicant dependence have a greater success rate than those who receive intervention based on the male-as-norm theoretical account.MethodResearch for this thesis will dwell of a formal literature reappraisal and a qualitative survey utilizing a two fold attack.

A formal and comprehensive literature reappraisal serves several intents. A formal literature reappraisal provides an avenue for placing current and past research that has been conducted and for measuring the cogency and dependability of such research to derive a stronger cognition base on a peculiar topic. A formal literature reappraisal provides the footing for developing research that will widen the cognition provided in one or a group of surveies. A formal literature reappraisal provides information that serves as the footing for inquiry development for a qualitative instrument, such as a study or set of inquiries to utilize in formal interviews or concentrate groups. For intents of this thesis, the literature reappraisal will function all three intents.

The literature reappraisal will be conducted utilizing a series of academic hunts for information through library systems, on-line academic systems and other subscription based professional research databases, such as Questia or Highbeam. Similarly, professional psychological and medical sites and associations will be reviewed for current literature every bit good as those professional sites developed for specialised research into intoxicant dependence and related subjects. Governmental, national and universe wellness associations will besides be reviewed for current literature every bit good as research and development attempts and governmental enterprises. All articles chosen must be written in English,holdbenutpublishedsince 1970in the last 15 old ages, be published in professional diariesor documentsand be authored by believable and qualified professionals in their several Fieldss.

Following the literature reappraisal, this thesis will carry on a phenomenological qualitative survey on work forces and adult females through the usage of two qualitative group treatments. It is of import to pull the differentiation between focal point groups and qualitative group treatments, as “the term ‘focus groups ‘ and the conducting of them besides differs from continent to continent. In the United Kingdom some use ‘focus groups ‘ to depict a semi-structured, prescribed inquiry methodological analysis ensuing in information, while ‘qualitative group treatments ‘ are used to depict exploratory, unfastened, non-directive groups taking to understanding” ( Gowley, 1999, p. 17 ) .Although a phenomenological attack has restrictions due to possible research worker prejudice in theme designation, it is of import, as Gorgio ( 2002, p. 136 ) provinces that research workers can place and obtain “a elucidation of the conditions from human topics.

.. the descriptive phenomenological method implements this scheme. Indeed, it is an extension of the really spirit of science.” Ashworth ( 2003, p. 145 ) Tells us that phenomenological psychological science in the UK focuses on the question of existent universe experiences within a specialized or defined context, such as psychological science or wellness. Ashworth farther provinces: It has been from the start recognised that lifeworld as such refers to an indispensable construction cardinal to human experience, and that to talk of lifeworlds is to concentrate on the distinguishable realizations of the lifeworld-structure, which is evidenced locally and temporarily by the co-presence of peculiar persons with their particular set of projects” ( Ashworth, 2003, p.

146 ) .AnalysisBoth groups will be asked a series of inquiries designed to arouse open-ended responses. Each group will be asked the same inquiries to let for gender based responses identifiable merely from respondents, such as: “In a group scene, what kinds of subjects do you discourse? ” Females are more likely to react based on societal issues which lead them to imbibe instead so males ( Hanna et al. , 2002, p. 151 ; Wilke, 1994, 32 ) . Consistent with a phenomenological attack, the analysis will be performed through the usage of subject designation when reexamining group interview transcripts from which to turn out or confute the thesis hypothesis.Workplan*

Initiate Literature Review 2.

5 months, ( 9/1 – 11/15 )

Recruit Subjects 1 month ( 11/1 – 11/30 )
Develop salient set of inquiries for experimental groups based on capable cognition and research inquiries 1 hebdomad ( 11/15 – 11/22 )
Behavior Groups 2 hebdomads ( 12/1 – 12/15 ) **
Analyze group transcripts 1 month ( 12/15 – 1/15 )
Prepare written thesis 1 month ( 1/15 – 2/15 )

* the proposed work program can be modified to let for overlapping stages instead than consecutive stages if required to shorten the clip required.** potentially there may be a demand to travel these yearss due to the Christmas vacations and participant handiness.MentionsAshworth, P. ( 2003 ) . An attack to phenomenological psychological science: The eventualities of lifeworld.Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 34( 2 ) , 145 – 156.

Blow, F. C. , Chermack, S. T. , Fuller, B. E. & A ; Stoltenberg, S.

F. ( 2000 ) . Gender differences in the development of substance-related jobs: The impact of household history of alcohol addiction, household history of force and childhood behavior.Journal of Studies on Alcoholism, 61( 6 ) , 845 – 852.Carroll, K. M. , Connors, G.

J. , Del Boca, F. K.

, Mattson, M. E. , Randall, C. L. & A ; Roberts, J. S.

( 1999 ) . Telescoping of landmark events associated with imbibing: A gender comparing.Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60( 2 ) , 252 – 255.Gorgio, A. ( 2002 ) . The inquiry of cogency in qualitative research.Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 33( 4 ) , 135-147.

Gowley, J, C. P. ( 1999 ) . Strategic qualitative focal point group research: Define and joint our accomplishments or be replaced by others. International Journal of Market Research, 42 ( 1 ) , p.

17.Hanna, F. J.

, Urgenson, F. T. , new wave der Walde, H. & A ; Weitz, S. H.

( 2002 ) . Women and alcohol addiction: A biopsychosocial position and intervention attacks. Journal of Counselling and Development, 80( 2 ) , 145 – 153.

Hilt, L. & A ; Nolen-Hoeksema, S. ( 2006 ) . Possible subscribers to the gender differences in intoxicant usage and jobs.The Journal of General Psychology, 133( 4 ) , 357 – 374.Marikovic, K. & A ; Oscar-Berman, M.

( 2003 ) . Alcoholism and the encephalon: an overview.Alcohol Research & A ; Health, 27( 1 ) , 125 – 133.

Prescott, C. A. ( 2002 ) . Sexual activity differences in the familial hazard for alcohol addiction.

Alcohol Research & A ; Health, 24( 4 ) , 264-276.Wilke, D. ( 1994 ) .

Women and alcohol addiction: How a male-as-norm prejudice affects research, appraisal, and intervention.Health and Social Work, 19( 1 ) , 29 – 35.Wilsnack, R. W.

& A ; Wilsnack, S. C. 2002.

International gender and intoxicant research: Recent findings and future waies.Alcohol Research & A ; Health, 100( 12 ) , 1760-1762.

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