There are several good examples of measures taken in Sweden that have reduced air pollution levels. However, we will require assistance in achieving the environmental objectives such as those for ground-level ozone and particles which are largely transported over long distances, and it will be necessary for far-reaching measures to be taken throughout Europe. Health effects and air pollution Out-door air pollution is a major cause of ill-health, causing shorter life- expectancy, hospitalizing, respiratory difficulties and cancer, to name the most serious of its effects.
They cause suffering to the individual and costs for society. Out-door air pollution comes from a large number Of sources, such as traffic (which in the urban environment is the predominant source), heating, long-distance transport and industrial processes. Particles, ozone and nitrogen oxides are examples of pollution causing many different types of medical problems and diseases. Organic substances, such as benzene, ethane and polychromatic hydrocarbons are also carcinogenic substances in air pollution, caused by incomplete combustion.
In a statistical sample of Swede’s population, one-tenth said that they had health problems, caused armorial by vehicle exhaust emissions and wood burning. The number of cases of lung cancer as a result of the contamination of urban air in Sweden is estimated at between 100 and 200 cases per year, and between 100 and 1000 cases per year of other forms Of cancer are thought to be caused by air pollution. In addition to the direct effects on health of air pollution, indirect effects may occur as a result of global changes in the composition of the atmosphere.
The greenhouse effect will result in higher mean temperatures and increase the energy in climate systems. More frequent storms With heavy rainfall can be expected, which may have indirect health effects in the form of injuries caused by falling trees and flooding. This may be accompanied by more favorable conditions for insects to spread diseases. Emissions of Freon’s into the atmosphere, resulting in increased I-JP intensity at ground level, may be one of the reasons for the occurrence of different types of skin cancer.
Desired and achieved air quality The environmental quality objective Clean Air means that the air should be so clean that no damage is inflicted on people’s health, and animals, plants and cultural values. The ambition is to achieve sustainable development within a enervation. In recent decades, air quality in our urban areas has been improved in many respects. However, ozone, particle and carcinogenic substance levels are still too high.
The goal for 2020 for particles smaller than IMO and carcinogenic substances will probably be achieved for background air in our urban areas, but is not likely to be reached in the street environment, which of course is the most important in terms of human exposure to these substances. In areas with a significant incidence of small-scale wood burning, the particle goal will probably not be achieved by 2020 (the generation objective). Goals ill probably be achieved for national emissions of Voss.
The interim target for nitrogen dioxide is largely expected to be achieved by 2010 as a result of reductions in traffic emissions. Sulfur dioxide levels have declined and are today far below maximum levels allowed by existing environmental quality standards. Air pollution control International air pollution control is primarily organized under the Convention on Long-Range Turnarounds Air Pollution, the ICE-ALERT, and by the EX. in the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programmer.
Today CAFE works actively with such organizations as the WHO. At the same time, work is also underway on SEC directives aimed at reducing emissions from major sources, and establishing goals for air quality. A new directive on ground-level ozone will be introduced in Sweden. Using the Swedish Environmental Code as a basis, Sweden has established standards for minimum acceptable environmental quality for sulfur- and nitrogen dioxide, lead and particles (Swedish Code of Statutes 2001:527).
Environmental quality standards will also be introduced for benzene and carbon monoxide. There are several good “Swedish” examples of measures that have had a positive impact on air quality. Worth mentioning are the system for nitric oxide charges, environmental zones for heavy traffic, the environmental classification system for motor fuels, the introduction of district heating and the provisions of the sulfur ordinance on sulfur levels in oil that were introduced early on in Sweden.
To reduce ground-level ozone levels in Sweden, major reductions of Knox and VOCE must be made throughout Europe. As far as particles are concerned, a large proportion of the fine fraction (PM. 5) consists of long-range transported particles chemically formed in the atmosphere. These are examples of areas in which Sweden needs help in the work of reducing air pollution levels.