The aim of this practical was to attempt to replicate Harrison and Saeed,s (1977) analysis of lonely hearts advertisements using a quantitative technique, to test the hypothesis that when personal advertisement are placed in various publications, from the local newspaper to national tabloids, that general level of social desirability offered matched the level of social level of desirability sought, and individuals seeking attractiveness in a partner were more likely to offer physical attractiveness of their own.80 heterosexual romantic advertisement (40 of each sex) placed in the personal column, from one of the local newspaper were randomly collected and analysed. Each were put into identical categories as in Harrison and Saeed (1977) study. The results were generally supportive of that men were more likely than women to offer financial resources and honesty/sincerity, and to seek attractiveness, appealing body shape.
In selecting a potential mate, women were more likely than men to offer an appealing body shape and to seek financial resources, qualities likely to lead to resource acquisition, and honesty/sincerity in potential mates. Women were also more likely than men to seek male friendship and/or companionship and to offer greater involvement only after the establishment of such friendship, whereas men more frequently than women made explicit requests for a sexual relationship.Introduction.According to Darwinian theory, where one sex competes for mates, mate selection is expected to occur among the other sex. Trivers (1985). Among mammals, females who invest more time and energy in offspring tend to demonstrate more selectivity in their choice of mating partners. They prefer males who are ready and able to expend effort in helping to raise offspring.
Consequently, they select mates that possess valuable resources that could be transformed into reproductive advantage through the increased number of surviving offspring (Daly and Wilson 1983).It is expected that these preferences also work among humans (Symons1979; Buss 1987). Human females, who invest more heavily in offspring than males, have been found more discriminating and choosy regarding mates.
They prefer characteristics in potential mates that are associated with the male’s status and wealth and that signal the possession or likely acquisition of resources. In a study of 37 cultures, it was found that in prospective mates females more than males valued favourably cues such as ‘good financial prospects’, ‘good earning capacity’, ‘ambition’ and ‘industriousness’ Buss (1989).These cues are reliable predictors of the male’s capacity for investing in his offspring. Other studies have also revealed that females, more than males, preferred criteria of wealth and status which will closely linked to resource acquisition Towsend et al, (1989). It has also been found that females prefer older mates, which also serves their reproductive interests because the age, in general, is often partly correlated with income (Buss 1989), Bereeczkei (1997).Previous theories of human mating differ in whether mating decisions are seen as goal directed and strategic or whether they are merely the product of forces beyond the individual’s choice. Freud and Jung, for example, proposed that people seek in mates characteristics that resemble images or archetypes of their opposite-sex parent (Eckland, 1968). Winch (1958) proposed that people seek in mates characteristics they themselves lack: a search for complementary.
Cattell and Nesselroade (1967) proposed that people seek similarity in mates: that likes attract likes. Exchange and equity theories posit that people search for those with whom exchange of valuable resources will be in approximate equilibrium.All these theories share the notion that human mating is strategic and choices are made, consciously or unconsciously, to maximise some entity, match, or balance. Buss; Schmitt (1093).The relatively greater preoccupation with casual sexual encounters demonstrated by men. Hite (1987) may be accounted for by the greater emotional investment that women place in sex.
Basow (1986) suggests that the “gender differences in this area (different meaning attached to sex) may turn out to be the strongest of all gender differences”. Women, conversely, may tend to emphasise psychological and personality characteristics (Curry ; Hock, 1981; Deaux ; Hanna, 1984), and to seek longevity and commitment in a relationship to a greater extent Basow (1986).Women may also seek financial security more than men (Harrison ; Saeed, 1977). Regarding this point, Farrell (1986) suggests that the tendency to treat men as success objects is reflected in the media, particularly in the advertisements in women’s magazines. On the other hand, men themselves may reinforce this stereotype in that a number of men still apparently prefer the traditional marriage with working husband and unemployed wife.
( Basow 1986). Davis (1990)Previous studies of attachment styles and partner choice have formulated the issues in terms of whether the attachment styles follow the similarity or complementary principles. Davis and Latty-Mann, (1987) et al, propose that the fundamental basis of partner preference is neither of these. Principles are that persons seek romantic partners who offer the best opportunity for the formation of a secure attachment bond (the attachment- security hypothesis of Chappell & Davis, 1993).Attachment theory has the flexibility to be incorporated into either the stage or interaction process frameworks. The rationale is straightforward.
To have one’s need for a safe haven, a secure base and proximity to a source of security, one would try to collaborate with a person who offers these opportunities. Attachment styles can be rank ordered clearly in terms of there potential for providing a secure base. Secure individuals represent the best opportunity, and among the two insecure types, it seems clear that a preoccupied partner offers a better opportunity for a secure base than does an avoidant partner. While the preoccupied partner can be demanding of intimacy and critical of failures to be responsive, that style is focused on having and holding on to a relationship. aviodant, by contrast, seem more focused on the dangers and complications of relationships, and thus are poorer bets for actually forming a secure bond.The attachment-security hypothesis thus makes clear prediction that all persons will prefer secure to insecure potential partners and that among the insecure, the preoccupied will be preferred to the avoidant potential partner.
By contrast, a similarity principle predicts that each attachment type will prefer its own type to either of the others, and the complementary principle predicts that, among insecure types, the preoccupied will prefer the avoidant and vice versa. Latty-Mann;Davis(1987)Since 1970 the development of the women’s movement has been accorded some official recognition in the form of a legislative package intended to reduce discrimination on the basis of sex, and through the establishment of the Equal Opportunities Commission. The commission concerned itself with the upholding of women’s rights and opportunities and also monitored the behaviour of any socialising agency, which might have the capacity to facilitate or impede the progress towards equality between the sexes. In respect of television advertising, this implies an examination of the ways in which males and females appearing in commercials are portrayed, to see whether these portrayals reflect the changes of the past decade and whether they are consistent with the officially sanctioned aim of grater equality for women.
Murray et al, (1972)