The Effect of World War and other World Events on the Development of Sport World War 2 effected the development of sport more dramatically than any previous world event/war, simply because it was a totally different war, civilians were in danger as well as the soldiers, due to the new style of fighting. WW2 was a much more mobile war then any other war as it was the first time when bombing was really introduced on a large scale; meaning that even if you were a civilian hundreds of miles away from the brunt of the fighting you could still be attacked from the air.This meant that you could never play sport out in the open in complete safety as bombing raids could come at any time; civilians had other more pressing matters no their mind other than playing and developing sport. Also PE in schools was set back considerably due to many PE teachers being enlisted into the army and many were used to train military personnel.
Any PE that was taught in school was mainly based around individual initiative and survival rather than the concepts on sport.PE taught during the Second World War is very different to the conventional PE that we know now, although it had educative intentions, the practical side of it was predominantly physical training, rather than learning how to play particular sports. Four things mainly effected the changes that occurred in the inter-war syllabuses.
The first influence being F.J.C Marshal and E. Major who published several books, they wanted to increase the importance of skill learning and the use of apparatus (possibly to make practical PE lessons more like the army style of training, i.e. assault courses etc).The next influence was the publication of female physical educationists. Veronica Tyndale-Biscoe (1945) described modern dance as using ‘the body as a medium of expression’.
Similarly a gymnast Ruth Clark (1946) suggested that ‘working on apparatus at his own value has particular value to the timid child, who gains courage through the discovery for himself of his own capabilities’. So they also believed that apparatus should be used, but in such a way that children would learn about their sporting strengths and weaknesses themselves.The third influence was C.E. Cooke who extended F.
J.C. Marshall and E. Major’s views, by actually bringing new army apparatus into schools after seeing them in use by commandos in the Northern Command Physical Training School; she believed the children would ‘enjoy the skill and adventure provided by the apparatus’. Even though she thought the children would enjoy the skill it was still mainly aimed at physical training rather than the skills of playing sport.
The last main influence of the inter-war syllabus was a woman named Miss Dudgeon, who was working at a children rehabilitation clinic. PE had always been aimed at making children react to a set task. But she believed in setting open tasks where children could respond in their own time.
So sport at a PE level was affected significantly by the Second World War, but sports them selves were affected by the war as well. There was a 12-year gap between the 1938 World Cup in France and the 1950 World Cup in Brazil. The Olympics also had to be cancelled due to the Second World War as in July of 1939, just one year before the Games were to be held, The IOC awarded the Games to Helsinki, Finland. Helsinki’s organizing committee prepared for the Games, but when Finland was attacked by the Soviet Union in November, they had to withdraw. The IOC (International Olympic Committee), realizing the futility of trying to find a venue for the Olympics during what would come to be known as World War II, abandoned the idea of holding the Summer Games in 1940.The 1936 Olympics were also affected by the up and coming war as the games were manipulated by the Nazi government to promote the countries political ideals. Many Germans were imprisoned so they couldn’t disrupt the games. Only Germans of Hitler’s so call Aryan race were allowed to compete for Germany.
This had a huge affect on the game as other Germans were banned from taking part. Not only did the war effect sporting competitions that were going to happen, but also many sports players were enlisted into the army and died in battle, and therefore crippling many sports of their star players and teams.Other events have also affected sport in quite a large way; the most recent being the terrorist acts that happened on September 11th 2001. As a result of this the 2001 Ryder Cup, which was due to be played at The Belfry in England was called off, and rescheduled with the same teams and players for September 2002, again at The Belfry. All Champions League and UEFA Cup games were postponed and the Davis Cup tie between USA and India was played 12-14 October instead of its original date. The tragedy of September 11th had a big affect on sport and the athletes competing just as all other past world events have.
Foot and mouth was a disease which hit England quite badly in terms of sport, as not only did it postpone professional sports but even more so amateur sports, for example most Sunday football leagues were basically stopped because of the disease spreading so rapidly. The team I played for at the time had half of their season cancelled due to our home ground being next to a farm. Also all inter school competitions were cancelled due o the outbreak.
Foot and mouth effected professional bowls when the British Isles International indoor series was postponed, and the World Indoor Championships were also postponed by foot and mouth. Nearly all sport fixtures in Ireland were postponed due to the outbreak of foot and mouth, in particular games during the 6 nations cup had to be postponed, for example international matches between England and Ireland were rescheduled. There have been many events which have hindered the development of sport but it seems the societies want to play them and to play them in competition has kept sport alive, in such a way that governing bodies have been formed to increase the level at which we play. Even games like darts and snooker which might be consider as “pub games” have become into professions for some people.ReferencesB Davis, R Bull, J Roscoe, D Roscoe 199 Physical Education and Mosby the Study of Sport Forth Edition, http://www.olympic.org/uk/index_uk.asp”>http://www.olympic.org/uk/index_uk.asp.